Anda di halaman 1dari 21


A phrase is group of word which does not contain finite verb but which functions as a noun, an adjective or an adverb within a sentence. Also phrase refers to a sequence of two or more words arranged in grammatical construction and acting as unit in a sentence that sequence of the words intended to have meaning

A finite verb refers to a form of a verb that shows agreement with a subject, is marked for a tense contrast with non-finite verb. If there is just one verb in a sentence if is finite. Or phrase is a group of word which conveys meanings but not complete thought of meaning. The following are types of phrases;

Noun phrase refers to a phrase that has a noun as its head. The noun typically functions as subject, object, and compliment of the sentences as complement in prepositional phrases; Example The girl -The pretty girl -The pretty girl in the corner

There are three parts within a noun phrase structure, Head, Determiner, Modifier .Head this the key word in a phrase and it cannot be omitted. For example- The rich are getting richer. H Also determiner is reference of the noun that specifies the range of the reference of the noun by making it definite, indefinite or indicating quantity. Example of determiner are the, my, a, an, this, that, those

And modifier is the last structure within noun phrase, this is word that modifies ,link , meaning to a noun, verb, adjective or adverb, for example He ate quickly (quickly, is an adverb that modifies the verb ate) -She was extremely tired (extremely is an adverb that modifies an adjective tired) -She is a beautiful girl (beautiful is an adjective that modifies the noun girl)

Adverbial phrase (AdvP) is a linguistic term for a group of two r more words operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function. Examples The soldier fought bravely -The soldier fought in a brave manner. In a first sentence the word bravely tells more about the verb fought, it modifiers the verb, so the word bravely is an adverb. In the same way the group of words in a work of a single part of a speech which is adverb phrase.

Other example I shall wait for you here. -I shall wait for you on this spot. While the group of word on this spot is an adverb phrase. -The bats flew in swiftly manner. -The parrots flew in full speed. -The pigeon flew in quick manner.

Verb phrase

Verb phrase they are easy to recognize. They consist of a verb and all the related helping words. Verb phrase may function as single-word verbs and compliment. Example; -I have been asking for raise for ten years. -I have just been working on this, and the problem is in the cable -John is coming -James may come

Prepositional phrase

Prepositional phrase, is a word that serves to connect major words (usually noun) to other parts of the sentence. Some preposition also belongs to other classes (adverbs, conjunctions, adjectives). Prepositional phrases start with a preposition (such as in, at, by, for, to and over), have a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and may also have other modifiers.

Prepositional phrases function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.The following are the example of prepositional phrase - The announcement for the play arrived after it was over. (As adjective)

-He walked into the meeting just as the president arrived. (As adverb) - For you to pass your test is the reason for having a tutor. (As noun in this case, the subject. -She gave the information to me. (As indirect object) As adjectives in the noun phrases (post modifier) Example. -The boy with a hat. H - Post-modifier -The pen on the table H-post modifier As adverbials within the clause structure Example -I like sitting by the door (of place) -I will see you at noon (of time)

As compliment to verbs Example That bundle consist of rubbish -It is made of wood As adjective Compliments (Post-Modify Adjective in Adjective phrases) Adjective (PP) Adj Compliment Example He is aware of the problem. -We are keen on the issue. -He is sorry for his parents. As object of another preposition Example she will be here in under half an hour Pre pre ph (object)

Gerund phrase

Gerund phrase, is another type of phrase, this formed from a gerund plus its related words. A gerund is a verb with an ing ending that functions as a noun. Gerund phrases look like some participial phrases. The difference is that participial phrases function as adjectives; gerund phrases function as nouns. Example; - Geralds singing always National song. (As subject) - Sam hates getting a headache when he works late. (As direct object) - His favourite activity is sailing down the Ruvu River. (As subject complement) -Travelling can be educational (As gerund)

Infinitive verb

Infinitive phrase, this is formed from an infinitive and other related words. An infinitive is the word to be followed by the verb .This type of phrase function as noun an adjective or an adverb -To get an appointment with him requires a great patience (As a noun subject) -He wanted to see the Clock Tower, but he didnt know where it was (As a noun direct object) -He wrote a letter to raise funds for the foundation (As an adverb) -The decision to eliminate vacations was very unpopular (As an adjective).

Absolute phrase

Absolute phrase also is another type of phrase or sometime known as a "nominative absolute," which contains a noun phrase subject and a "partial" predicate. Absolute phrases resemble clauses, but the predicate is incomplete, with forms of the word "be" being deleted from the phrase. Absolute phrases function as a type of modifier that explains more about the general circumstances occurring in the main clause. They may be placed at almost any position in the sentence.,

Example of absolute as underlined on the following sentence - The plumber disappeared into the hole, a pipe wrench in his hand. - Its lights off and its doors locked, the mansion looked spooky in the moonlight. - Many boatstheir anchors buried in the sandlay on the salty bed of the dried-up sea. Also apart from this there is another types of phrase

Participial phrases are formed from participles and all the related words. Participles are formed from verbs and end in "ing" or "ed." Participles function as adjectives. They often describe the subject of the sentence.

Example of participial phrases shown on the following sentence above - Laughing wildly, she ran down the path. (Describes "she") - The actor, pausing for a moment, looked at the crowd. (Describes "actor") - He showed us the cabinet, painted a brilliant green. (Describes the object "cabinet")

As we have already seen different types of phrase the following are the functions of phrase, -The bus at the corner is an express. The underlined word at the corner is an adjective phrase which modifying the noun bus -which of this buses will leave first? .Underlined words are adjective phrase which modifying the pronoun which. -During the night you should ride this car into the city. Adverb phrases modifying the verb phrase should ride. Youre walking too fast for your own good. Underlined word adverb phrase modifying the adverb fast

In order to convey the full meaning a phrase is linked together with other parts of speech such as nouns, adverb, preposition to make a noun phrase, verb to make a verb phrase, adverb to get an adverbial phrase.

REFERENCE -WRITERS CHOICE, GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION (United States of America) (1997) -SELF-INSTRUCTION IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR .By K.S.Joseph (Ed)DR.M.S.Yadav &DR.M.B.Menon -Comprehensive English Grammar and Composition C.D.SIDHU(Third Rev.Ed:2004) -A University Grammar of English, R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, J. Svatvik(2005) Internet source - -