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Authentic Leadership

Presentation by
Prof. D. Frear Wilkes University

1834 introduced to characterize positional power in a political context
The ability to influence others 1930s (Terry, 1993).

Leadership Qualities- Greeks

Justice and Judgment Wisdom and Council Shrewdness and Cunning Valor and Action (Terry, 1993).

Leadership (Bennis)
Leadership is all about innovating and initiating. Management is about copying and managing the status quo. Leadership is creative, adaptive, and agile. Leadership looks at the horizon, not just at the bottom line.

Leadership (Bennis)
A good manager does things right. A leader does the right things. Doing the right things implies a goal, a direction, an objective, a vision, a dream, a path, a reach.

Leadership (Bennis)
Managing is about efficiency. Leading is about effectiveness. Managing is about how. Leading is about what and why. Management is about systems, controls, procedures, policies, structure. Leadership is about trust and about people.

Personal Leadership
Personal Leadership Possesses the characteristics necessary to lead others (Terry, 1993).

Team Leadership
Ability to develop teams of others Ability to improve teams performance by matching leadership style to individual team members (Terry, 1993).

Positional Leadership
Granted by organization Worked through the ranks (Terry, 1993).

Functional Leadership
Attentive to change Leadership shaped by context not traits Adapts to survive (Terry, 1993).

Transactional Leadership
Involves contingent reinforcement. Followers are motivated by the leaders' promises, praise, and reward Or, they are corrected by negative feedback, reproof, threats, or disciplinary actions (Bass, 1985).

Transformational Leadership
Four components: Charisma or idealized influence (attributed or behavioral) Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration (Bass, 1985).

Ethical Leadership
How does the leader use power? Ethics is a guiding philosophy Ethics is a set of principles of conduct governing an individual or group Ethics involves moral approval or disapproval (Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 1998).

Ethical Leadership Kohlbergs Framework

Liberty Equality Dignity Justice Human Rights (Terry, 1993). Ethical Leadership must learn to apply these concepts to followers

Leaders as Facilitators
Add meaning Give direction Help others achieve goals

Leaders take Action

Mission a purpose, goal, vision, intention Power decision, commitment, passion, and volition that energizes mission Structure Plans that order mission accomplishment Resources Anything useful to accomplish the mission (Terry, 1993).

Leaders take Action

Existence Ecological and historical setting of the action Meaning Values, reasons, and rationalizations that justify a particular action Fulfillment The completed act (Terry, 1993).

The Action Wheel (Terry, 1993).


Authentic - Defined
From the Greek meaning one who accomplishes To act, to embody, to engage, and to participate in life Fidelity, actuality and fact, compatibility with a certain source or usage, a complete sincerity without feigning hypocrisy. (Websters New International Unabridged Dictionary)

Authentic - Defined
Guided and judged by genuineness and trustworthiness; sincerity by purity of intent

Authentic Leadership
Upholds formal decision making versus secret pacts Upholds ethical foundations Open agendas versus hidden agendas Resists oppression vs terrorizing the innocent Do not intentionally mislead followers Maintains common purpose

Authentic Leadership
Show up Engage

Authenticity & Ethical Principles Framed by the Action Wheel (Terry, 1993)
Ethical Principles Generic Features Lived Authenticity Lived Authenticity Affirmations and Denials of Prerequisite Prerequisite in Showing Up Action for self for Community and Engaging Meaning Possess wise judgment Build an enduring and Responsibility thriving future Affirms accountability to and for authentic action Mission Understand self and others Discover and support Love knowledge, mutuality, Affirms attention, caring and regard, and respect forgiveness - Denies apathy, self-righteousness, indifference Power Possess Empowerment Share power dialogue Participation & Consent Affirms engagement Denies aggression and deviousness Structure Exhibit personal growth Possess equitable and Justice and development adequate distribution Affirms fairness systems Denies promise breaking, underdevelopment, and rigidity Resources Possess necessities of Produce and distribute Freedom living adequate resources Affirms potential and possibility Denies arbitrary discrimination, exclusion, and lack of information Existence Possess life - physical Promote ecological Dwelling development diversity and survival Affirms dwelling as necessary place, space, and time Denies murder and genocide

Leadership Skills (Terry, 1993)

Leadership School (Feature of Action) Personal (Existence) Essential Skills Understanding and using the MyersBriggs type indicator and other tools For knowing oneself and others Diagnosing team needs with situational Model, understanding small-group Management techniques Strategic planning, leading from the middle, promoting growth, managing Retrenchment during organizational change, possessing system savvy Managing and utilizing conflict, Community organizing and encouraging collective leadership Using intuition, storytelling, understanding and using myths, symbols and metaphors Identifying and defining critical ethical categories, performing ethical analysis, practicing clarity

Team (Resources)

Positional/Functional (Structure)

Political (Power)

Visionary (Mission) Ethical (Meaning)

Five Touchstones of Authentic Leadership

Touchstone One: Know Yourself Authentically Touchstone Two: Listen Authentically. Touchstone Three: Express Authentically. Touchstone Four: Appreciate Authentically. Touchstone Five: Serve Authentically. (Cashman 1998).

Touchstone One: Know Yourself Authentically

Know thyself, appears in the writings of Ovid, Cicero, and Socrates, in the sayings of the Seven Sages of Greece, on the entrance to the temple of Apollo, in Christian writings and in Eastern texts. If we want to be more effective with others, we first need to become more effective with ourselves. Practice being what you wish others to become.

Touchstone Two: Listen Authentically. Listening authentically is centered in the principle of psychological reciprocity: to influence others, we must first be open to their influence. Authentic listening is about being generous listening with a giving attitude that seeks to bring forth the contribution in someone, versus listening with our limiting assessments, opinions and judgments. Authentic listening is about being open to the purpose and learning coming to us through the other person.

Touchstone Three: Express Authentically

Authentic expression is a delicate subject for many leaders. Integrity goes far beyond telling the truth. Integrity means total congruence between who we are and what we do. Authentic expression is the true voice of the leader. We speak from our character and it creates trust, synergy and connection with everyone around us.

Touchstone Four: Appreciate Authentically.

As leaders we tend to do too much and appreciate too little. Love is an extreme case of appreciation. Appreciation is one type of self-expression that creates value. It energizes people and makes people want to exceed their goals and perceived limits. Criticism may get short-term results but usually doesnt add long-term value. What it does add is fear and insecurity.

Touchstone Five: Serve Authentically

Ultimately, a leader is not judged by how well he or she leads, but by how well he or she serves. We serve our organization. We serve our people. We serve our customers. We serve our marketplace. We serve our community. We serve our family. We serve our relationships. The real job is to serve all the constituencies and to appreciate genuinely the fact the only through our interdependence with others do we create value.