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# Sir Isaac Newton Discovered

Laws Of Motion

## NewtONs first Law

(Law of Inertia):

An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity: whether in motion or motionless.

## Conceptual Example : Newtons first law.

Example- A school bus comes to a sudden stop, and all of the backpacks on the floor start to slide forward. What force causes them to do that?

## Newtons First Law Alternative Statement

In the absence of external forces, when viewed from an inertial reference frame, an object at rest remains at rest & an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity Newtons 1st Law describes what happens in the absence of a net force Also tells us that when no force acts on an object, the acceleration of the object is zero

## Inertia & Mass

Inertia: The tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or motion. Mass: A measure of the inertia of a body,

Quantity of matter in a body Quantify mass by having a standard mass = Standard Kilogram (kg) SI Unit of Mass = Kilogram (kg)

## NewtONs secONd Law

Newtons second law gives the relationship of acceleration to force and inertia. Newtons second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
The acceleration of an object is always in the direction of the net force.

## When objects are changing direction or velocity:

If any object is changing direction or velocity (the type of motion), we say the object is accelerating (the state of motion). This unit will show the concepts behind accelerations, what causes acceleration (net force),

## Newtons Laws of Motion

Experiment : The net force F on a body and the a F/m
acceleration a of that body are related. Thousands of experiments over hundreds of years find (object of mass m):
(Proportionality)

We choose the units of force so that this is not just a proportionality but an equation:

a F/m
or

F = ma
F = the net force acting on mass m m = the mass (inertia) of the object. a = acceleration of object. Description of the effect of F. F is the cause of a.

## Newtons Laws of Motion

Example
: Force to stop a car.
What average net force is required to bring a 1500-kg car to rest from a speed of 100 km/h with in a distance of 55 m?

## NewtONs third Law Of MOtiON

The law of action and reaction. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal (in magnitude) and opposite (in direction) force on the first object

## Newtons Laws of Motion

Example :
Rocket propulsion can also be explained using Newtons third law: hot gases from combustion spew out of the tail of the rocket at high speeds. The reaction force is what propels the rocket.
Note that the rocket does not need anything to push against.

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