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Conservation of Energy

Energy AND Conservation of Energy


Energy is the ability to make things change. A system that has energy has the ability to do work. Energy is measured in the same units as work because energy is transferred during the action of work.

Energy AND Conservation Conservation of Energy of Energy

Law of Conservation of Energy Energy The Law of Conservation of


Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.

P.E K.E. P.E. K.E. Is energy lost? No Energy is converted!

Conservation of Energy Conservation of Energy Potential Energy


Potential energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth's gravitational field.
Mass (kg)

Potential Energy (joules)

Ep = mgh

Height (m)

Acceleration of gravity (m/sec2)

Conservation of Energy Conservation of Energy Kinetic Energy:


Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about has kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object in this case is given by the relation:
Mass (kg)

Kinetic Energy (joules)

Ek = 1 mv2 2

Speed (m/sec)

Law of Conservation of Conservation of Energy Energy Prove The Conservation of Energy: Now prove that the Conservation law holds good in the case of a freely falling body.
Let a body of mass 'm' placed at a height 'h' above the ground, start falling down from rest. In this case we have to show that the total energy (potential energy + kinetic energy) of the body at A, B and C remains constant i.e, potential energy is completely transformed into kinetic energy.

Law of Conservation of Conservation of Energy Energy


At A :Potential energy = mgh

Kinetic energy = 0 [the velocity is zero as the object is initially at rest] Total energy at A = P.E. + K.E.

Total energy at A =
At B :P. Energy = = PE = mgh

mgh

.. (i)

mg(h - x) [Height from the ground is (h - x)] mgh - mgx

Kinetic energy The body covers the distance x with a velocity v. we know that K. Energy = mgx P.E. + K.E. v2 - u2 = 2aS . Here, u = 0, a = g and S = x

Total energy at B =

Total energy at B =

mgh(ii)

Law of Conservation of Conservation of Energy Energy


At C :Potential energy = P. Energy = m x g x 0 (h = 0) 0

For Kinetic energy The body covers the distance h with a velocity v. We know that v2 - u2 = 2aS Here, u = 0, a = g and S = h

Kinetic Energy = Total energy at C =

mgh P.E. + K.E.

Total energy at C =

mgh

. (iii)

From equations (i), (ii) and (iii)

That the total energy of the body remains constant at every point.
Thus,

We conclude that Law

of Conservation Of Energy

Holds good in the case of a freely falling body


.