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Rangka Aksial -Tengkorak -Tulang vertabra -Sangkar thorasik

Figure 5.6
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Two sets of bones

Cranium Facial bones

Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

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(The skull)

Figure 5.7
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Figure 5.11
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Figure 5.8
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Figure 5.9
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The cranium is composed of 8 bones, except for 2 paired bones, they are all single bones. Frontal Bone : the forehead, also forms the the projections under the eyebrows and the superior part of each eye orbit

Parietal Bones : paired bones that form the superior and lateral walls of the skull

They meet at the sagittal suture and form the coronal suture where they meet the frontal

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Figure 5.7
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The temporal bones are inferior to the parietal bones, and join with them at the squamous suture There are several important bone markings on the temporal bone.

External auditory meatus: ear canal

Styloid process : allows for muscle attachment
Zygomatic process : the thin bridge of bone that joins anteriorly with the zygomatic bone

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Mastoid process provides an attachment site for some neck muscles. Also contains the mastoid sinuses. Jugular foramen : allows for the passage of the jugular vein . Carotid canal : anterior to the jugular foramen, allows for passage of the carotid artery.

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Figure 5.9
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Occipital Bone forms the inferior posterior portion of the skull. The occipital bone contains the magnum foramen, which is the large opening that allows for passage of the spinal cord from the base of the brain down the vertebral column .

The occipital bone joins with the temporal and parietal bones

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The occipital bone features the occipital condyles, which articulate with the first cervical vertebrae, called the atlas. The sphenoid bone is the wing shaped bone which spans the skull, most of which is visible on the interior of the skull .

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14 bones compose the face 12 Bones are paired, and only the mandible and the vomer are single bones.

Maxillae ( maxillary bones) fuse to form the upper jaw. All of the facial bones join the maxillae, except the mandible

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The palatine processes form the anterior hard palate The maxillae also contain the para-nasal sinuses Palatine Bones paired bones that lie posterior to the hard palate Failure of these bones to fuse results in a cleft palate

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Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

Figure 5.10
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The Zygomatic bones : commonly called the cheekbones, they also form a large portion of the eye sockets Vomer : single plow-shaped bone that forms the nasal septum

Inferior conchae : thin curved bones that project from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
Mandible : Lower jaw, the largest strongest bone of the face

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Hyoid Bone:

The only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with another bone.
It is located in the mid neck, above the larynx, and is anchored to the styloid process by ligaments Shaped like a horse shoe, it serves as a movable base for the tongue and as a point of muscular attachment for muscles in the neck

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The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

Figure 5.12
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The fetal skull is large when compared to the body of the fetus. A newborns skull has regions that have yet to be converted to bone. These soft spots are called fontanels ( little fountains) The rhythm of the babys pulse can be felt in these areas.

They are usually converted to bone 22 to 24 months post partum.

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The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length

Figure 5.13
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Fontanelles fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones

Allow the brain to grow Convert to bone within 24 months after birth

Figure 5.13
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1. Kranium * Berfungsi untuk melindungi otak. * Mempunyai 8 kepingan tulang yang berasingan bercantum melalui satur(sendi tak bergerak). 2. Soket mata (atau Orbit) * Berfungsi untuk melindungi kedua-dua bebola mata. 3. Tulang hidung * Berfungsi untuk menyokong tisu-tisu hidung yang lembut. 4. Lubang telinga * Berfungsi untuk melindungi bahagian dalam telinga. 5. Rahang atas (atau Maksila) * Berfungsi menyokong barisan gigi atas. 6. Rahang bawah (atau Mendibel) * Berfungsi menyokong barisan gigi bawah. * Rahang berkebolehan untuk bergerak, iaitu untuk menguyah makanan dan sebagainya. 7. Bukaan pada dasar tengkorak * Berfungsi untuk menyambung tengkorak dengan turus vertebra.

(Vertabral Column)

Is formed by 26 irregular bones Is a flexible, curved structure extending from the skull to the pelvis Protects the delicate spinal cord Transmits the weight load of the body to the lower limbs

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Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

Figure 5.14
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There are 33 separate vertebrae at birth Nine of these fuse to for the composite bones of the sacrum and the coccyx From superior to inferior the bones are designated by location and number Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5

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The number of bones in each group can remembered by the time of day we typically eat. 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar Individual vertebrae are separated by flexible fibrocartilage intervertebral disks

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The intervertebral disks absorb shock, and are highly compressible. They are 90% water As we age, the water content decreases and the disks become less flexible This helps explain why some elderly people seem to shrink with age.

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Herniated, or slipped disks can press against the spinal cord or nerves that exit the spinal cord.. This can result in extreme pain, and loss of function Spinal Curvatures The spine is curved to help absorb shock.

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The thoracic and sacral curves are called primary curves because they are present at birth. The secondary curves develop later. The cervical develops when the baby begins to raise its head, and the lumbar when the child begins to walk.

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All vertebrae have a similar structural pattern. Some common features: Body or centrum: the weight bearing part of the vertebra, and it faces anteriorly. Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the posterior extensions from the body of the vertebrae. Vertebral foramen: canal through which the spinal cord passes.
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Transverese Process: Two lateral projections from the vertebral arch Spinous Process : Single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch. Superior and Inferior Articular Processes : paired projections that allow vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the posterior extensions from the body of the vertebrae.
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Figure 5.17ab
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Cervical vertebrae ( C1 to C7 )form the neck region of the spine. C1 and C2 are specialized, they perform functions not shared by other vcervical vertebrae The Atlas ( C1) Has no body

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Transverse processes have depressions that receive the occipital condyles. The Axis ( C2 ) Acts as a pivot for the atlas and the skull C3 through C7 are the smallest and lightest vertebrae Their spinous processes are short and divide into two branches.

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Figure 5.17ab
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The transverse processes contain foramina for the arteries to pass through on their way to the brain. They are the only group of vertebrae with this feature.

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Figure 5.17ab
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Thoracic vertebrae ( T1 T 12 ). Larger than cervical vertebrae Have two costal demifacets on each side to receive the head of the ribs Have long spinous processes that angle sharply downward. When viewed from the side resemble the head of giraffe

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Figure 5.17cd
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Lumbar vertebrae ( L1 L 5 ). Are the strongest and stursiest of all vertebrae. Have large block- like bodies Spinous processes are short, and hatchet shaped. When viewed from the side resemble the head of a moose.

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Figure 5.17cd
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Formed by 5 fused vertebrae Superior aspect articulates with the inferior aspect of L5 Laterally the wing-like alae articulate with the hip bones to form the sacroiliac joints It forms the posterior wall of the pelvis The vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the sacral canal

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Formed by the fusion of 3 to 5 tiny irregular vertebrae It is the vestigial tail in humans

The Thorax The sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae make up the thorax, or thoracic cage

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The Thoracic cage surrounds and protects the heart, lungs and major blood vessels. The Sternum Is a flat bone composed of the fusion of 3 bones. Superior to inferior they are: Manubrium Body ( Gladiolus) Xiphoid process

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The jugular notch: the concave upper part of the manubrium, usually at the level of T3 The sternal angle : site where the manubrium and the gladiolus meet to form a slight angle. It is the reference point for locating the second intecostal space for listening to the heart valves Xiphisternal joint : Where the sternal body and the xiphoid process meet. Used as a landmark to locate the level of T9
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12 Pairs of ribs form the thoracic cage Men and women have the SAME number of ribs All ribs articulate with the vertebral column posteriorly The first 7 pairs are known as true ribs because they attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage

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The next 5 pairs are false ribs because they either attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all The last 2 pairs of false ribs lack sternal attachment, and are called floating ribs

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Tulang-tulang vertebra terdiri daripada 33 ruas tulang bersendi. Pada setiap hujungnya terbentuk satu turus yang boleh luntur. Turus vertebra berfungsi untuk melindungi saraf tunjang yang terletak dibahagian tengahnya. Diantara tulang-tulang vertebra, terdapat cakera rawan yang bertindak sebagai kusyen untuk penyerap hentakan(daya) dan mengurangkan geseran semasa pergerakan. Bahagian-bahagian turus vertebra ialah:
* * * * * 7 vertebra serviks - Bahagian leher 12 vertebra toraks - Bahagian toraks 5 vertebra lumbar - Bahagian pinggang 5 vertebra sakrum - Bahagian punggung 4 vertebra koksiks - Bahagian hujung tulang belakang

1. Sentrum * Bersifat Pejal dan tegar * Memberi sokongan * Menentang daya mampatan

2. Arka * Merupakan lengkuk saraf * Terletak pada bahagian dorsal sentrum * Melindungi saraf tunjang 3. Salur saraf * Merupakan salur rongga kosong * Berfungsi sebagai laluan saraf tunjang 4. Zigapofisis * Merupakan muka sendi antara 2 vertebra. * Prazigapofisis mengarah ke atas. * Postzigapofisis mengarah ke bawah. 5. Cuaran spina * Berfungsi untuk melekatkan otot 6. Cuaran melintang * Berfungsi untuk melekatkan otot

Sangkar rusuk berfungsi untuk melindungi jantung dan peparu.

Tulang-tulang yang membentuk sangkar rusuk ialah:

* 12 pasang tulang rusuk bersendi dengan vertebra toraks dan melengkung ke hadapan. * 7 pasang tulang rusuk bersendi dengan sternum secara terus. * 3 pasang yang lain dihubung secara tidak langsung dengan rawan. * 3 pasang tulang rusuk terakhir tergantung bebas dan tidak dihubungkan kepada sternum.

-Pectoral girdle dan tangan - Pelvic girdle dan kaki

Composed of 126 bones Shoulder girdle Also known as the pectoral or shoulder girdle, consists of 2 bones Clavicle Scapula

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Also called the collar bone Attaches medially to the manubrium Attaches laterally to the scapula Serves to hold the arm away from the thorax, and helps prevent shoulder dislocation A broken clavicle causes the shoulder to collapse medially

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Also called the shoulder blades Flat, triangular in appearance, has 2 important processes Acromion process: the enlarged end of the spine of the scapula Coracoid process : points over the top of the shoulder and helps anchor the muscles of the arm

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The scapula does not attach directly to the axial skeleton, but is held in place by muscles The scapula has three borders: Superior Medial Lateral

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The scapula has three angles: Superior Inferior Lateral

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The glenoid cavity is the shallow socket that receives the head of the humerous The shoulder girdle is exceptionally free to move However the price of this range of motion is that it is easily dislocated

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There are 30 bones in each upper limb The arm is formed by the single long bone, the humerus The proximal end has a rounded head that fits into the glenoid cavity

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The greater and lesser tubercles opposite the head are sites for muscular attachment The deltoid tuberosity is a roughened are at the midpoint of the shaft where the deltoid muscle attaches The radial grove allows for the passage of the radial nerve.

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The distal end of the humerus has a spool shaped trochlea on the medial side, and the ball like capitulum on the lateral side On the anterior surface the coronoid fossa is a depression above the trochlea On the posterior surface you will find the olecranon fossa These 2 depressions allow for free movement of the elbow

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The radius and ulna form the forearm In anatomical position the radius is the lateral bone The radius and ulna articulate with each other proximally and distally at small radio-ulnar joints The bones are also connected by a long interosseous membrane

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The forearm has two bones

Ulna Radius

Figure 5.21c
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The head of the radius forms a joint with the capitulum The radial tuberosity is the location for the attachment of the biceps tendon The ulna is the medial bone The coronoid fossa can be found on the proximal anterior surface of the bone The olecranon process can be found on the proximal posterior surface

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The forearm has two bones

Ulna Radius

Figure 5.21c
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The coronoid and olecranon processes grip the trochlea like pliers to form the elbow.

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The hand consists of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges. The carpals are 2 rows of 4 irregular bones, and form the wrist Hamate Pisiform Triquetral Lunate

Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Capitate

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The hand
Carpals wrist Metacarpals palm Phalanges fingers

Figure 5.22
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The carpals are bound together by ligaments that restrict movement between them The palm consists of metacarpals numbered 1 to 5, starting on the thumb side. Each hand has 14 phalanges, and all of the fingers are composed of three phalanges, except for the thumb, which has 2.

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Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones

Ilium Ischium Pubic bone

The total weight of the upper body rests on the p Protects several organs
Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine

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Figure 5.23a
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The pelvic bone is formed by 2 coxal bones Each of these bones is formed by the fusion of 3 bones. Ilium Ischium Pubis

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Figure 5.23b
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The pelvis is constructed of fairly large and heavy bones The hips are responsible for bearing the entire weight of the torso They also bear the stress associated with locomotion Reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and part of the large intestine are protected by the pelvis

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Figure 5.23c
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The femur is the only bone in the thigh It is the largest, strongest bone of the body The proximal end of the femur has a balllike head, and an obvious neck The femur slants medially to bring the knees in line with the bodys center of gravity

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The thigh has one bone

Femur thigh bone

Figure 5.24ab
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Distally, the lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia The LEG The larger and more medial bone in the lower leg is the tibia(shinbone) Proximally, it articulates with the distal femur to form the knee joint Distally the medial malleolus forms the inner bulge of the ankle

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The leg has two bones

Tibia Fibula

Figure 5.24c
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The smaller, lateral bone of the lower leg The fibula does not form the knee joint The distal end of the fibula forms the outer part of the ankle with its lateral malleolus The tibia and fibula are connected by an interosseous membrane, just like the radius and ulna are.

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The leg has two bones

Tibia Fibula

Figure 5.24c 10
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The thigh has one bone

Femur thigh bone

Figure 5.24ab 10
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The leg has two bones

Tibia Fibula

Figure 5.24c 10
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The foot
Tarsus ankle Metatarsals sole Phalanges toes

Figure 5.25
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-pola artikular dan fungsi -klasifikasi sendi

Joints of the Skeletal System

Articulations Junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction

Joints = Articulations
Articulation site where two or more bones meet Two Fundamental Functions of Joints: Allow the skeleton to have mobility Hold the skeleton together

Joints Structural and Functional Classes

Three Structural Classifications:
Fibrous suture, syndesomosis, gomphosis Cartilaginous synchondrosis, symphysis Synovial

Three Functional Classifications

Synarthrosis immovable Amphiarthrosis slightly movable Diarthrosis freely movable


Dua tulang akan rapat tetapi tiada pergerakan . contoh : tengkorak (skull) Diarthrosis Pergerakan pelbagai arah contoh : sendi lutut, sendi bahu Amphiarthrosis Pergerakan yang sedikit contoh : vetebra (tulang belakang)

Sendi melonsor: buku lali / pergelangan tangan Sendi engsel: siku / lutut Sendi pangsi: leher Sendi elipsoid: pergelangang tangan Sendi pelana: trapizium Sendi lesung: femur & pelvis, humerus

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2.6.1 Sendi Berdasarkan Fungsi

Rajah 1.4

Jenis Sendi Sinovial

2.6.2 Sendi Berasaskan Struktur



Contoh Sendi

Contoh Pergerakan



Contoh Sendi

Contoh Pergerakan







Rajah 1.5

Model RIngkas Pergerakan Artikular

Classification of Joints
Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints most complex allow free movement

synarthrotic immovable amphiarthrotic slightly movable diarthrotic freely movable

Fibrous Joints
3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis

Syndesmosis long fibers connect bones amphiarthrotic distal ends of tibia and fibula

Fibrous Joints
Suture between flat bones synarthrotic thin layer of connective tissue connects bones

Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic

2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic

Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones pubis symphysis joint between bodies of vertebrae amphiarthrotic

diarthrotic joint cavity synovial fluid joint capsule synovial membrane bursae

Ball-and-Socket Joint
hip shoulder

Condyloid Joint
between metacarpals and phalanges

Gliding Joint
between carpals between tarsals

Hinge Joint
elbow between phalanges

Pivot Joint
between proximal ends of radius and ulna

Saddle Joint
between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

Angular Movement Change of Angle Between Bones

Flexion bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint Extension reverse of flexion; joint angle increases Dorsiflexion and Plantar flexion up and down movement of the foot Abduction movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane Adduction movement of a limb toward the midline or median plane Circumduction movement of a limb describing a cone in space

abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension

The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples: Between first two vertebrae Hip and shoulder joints

rotation/circumduction supination/pronation

Special Movements
Supination and Pronation refer to movements of radius around the ulna (also applied to foot movements)

eversion/inversion protraction/retraction elevation/depression

Special Movements

Inversion and Eversion

Protraction and Retraction

Special Movements
Elevation and Depression


ball-and-socket head of humerus glenoid cavity of scapula loose joint capsule bursae ligaments prevent displacement very wide range of movement

hinge joint
trochlea of humerus trochlear notch of ulna

gliding joint
capitulum of humerus head of radius

flexion and extension many reinforcing ligaments stable joint

ball-and-socket joint head of femur acetabulum heavy joint capsule many reinforcing ligaments less freedom of movement than shoulder joint

largest joint most complex medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae

Sendi melonsor: buku lali / pergelangan tangan Sendi engsel: siku / lutut Sendi pangsi: leher Sendi elipsoid: pergelangang tangan Sendi pelana: trapizium Sendi lesung: femur & pelvis, humerus

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