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This is one I did for BSC nuclear dept.

Nuclear Plant Chemistry unit 1

NUPT-215

Bismarck State college

Welcome to chemistry NUPT-215 Unit one

Instructors name Maurice Rhoades

Desired outcome

Desired Outcome for Unit one: Explain and apply the basic concepts of chemistry fundamentals.

Unit 1.1: objectives


Describe the characteristics of an atom Describe the periodic table, and the categories of elements including the columns and rows and characteristics of the proton-electron relationships in chemical reactivity. Describe acids and bases Define pH and its relationship to acids and bases Define: The states of matter Atomic weight Molecular weight Molecules Compounds, solutions, mixtures

Objectives

Atoms

Unit 1.1

Describe the characteristics of an atom

Characteristics of atoms:

The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element. Consists of protons, electrons, and neutrons. (no quantum physics in this course) Has a nucleus which contains protons, neutrons, and outer shells that contains electrons. They contain a vast amount of space considering the electrons distance from the nucleus. They have mass and occupy space They make up most of the matter around us Chemical change is a union, separation, or rearrangement of atoms to give new substance They make up mater. Solid: has definite shape and definite volume Examples: control rods, reactor core, reactor pressure vessel, etc. Liquid: has indefinite shape and definite volume Examples: reactor coolant (H2O), Diesel fuel, mercury etc. Gaseous: characterized by both indefinite shape and indefinite volume Examples: nitrogen (N2) in the safety injection tanks, steam for the turbine, carbon dioxide, hydrogen in the generator cooling system, etc.

Weights and measure

Atomic Weight:

Is the weight of 6.02 x 1023 atoms of the element of interest. If you look on your NIST or interactive periodic table under the name of the element you will see the atomic weight. This weight is the weighted average of all the stable isotopes for the element or the isotopes with the longest half-life in the case of radioactive elements. Example: Chlorine (Cl) has two stable isotopes in nature. 75.77% is Cl 35 and Cl 37 is 24.23%. Together their weighted average atomic weight is 35.453 and is listed on the periodic chart accordingly. Atomic mass: ( not be confused with atomic weight)

is the mass of a specific isotope most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass is the total mass of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a single atom(when the atom is motionless) Molecule:

A group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by covalent bonds, although it is sometimes used to describe molecular ions and charged organic molecules and biomolecules.

Molecular Weight:

The sum of the relative atomic weights of the constituent atoms of a molecule.

Unit 1.2 Objectives.

Objectives, weights and measure

Define the following: Gram atomic weight Gram molecular weight The mole Avogadro's number Describe the atom: Protons Neutrons Electrons Charges associated with the atoms components Chemical classification by protons

Gram Atomic Weight:

is the weight of one mole of an element equal in grams to the atomic weight. amount of a molecular substance whose weight, in grams, is numerically equal to the molecular weight.

Gram molecular weight:

The mole:

is 6.02 x 1023 of something, such as the number of molecules, or atoms used in weight calculations

Avogadro's #

The atom:

+ + +

The atom:

Atom

The electron is negatively charged. Has very little mass. (1/1860 of the mass of the proton)

They move around the nucleus in orbitals or shells. Their number and shell position determine the chemical reactivity of the atom.

+ + +

The atom:

Atom

Protons are positively charged particles located in the nucleus.

+ +
Because of their positive charge, they attract equal numbers of electrons if possible and establish the elements individual properties.

Atoms can be classified chemically by the number of protons contained in their nucleus. The number of electrons is directly related. The chemical properties of the element is directly related to the numbers of protons an indeed give the element its distinct characteristics

The atom:

Atom

Neutrons have no charge, are particles located in the nucleus.

+ + +

Neutrons add to the stability of the nucleus and are roughly equal in mass to the proton

Unit 1.3 The periodic table


Table

Objectives:

Define: Periods of the periodic table Groups of the periodic table Classes of the periodic table Given s periodic table, identify the following subdivisions: Periods of the periodic table Groups of the periodic table Classes of the periodic table List the characteristics that elements in the same group on the periodic table share. Define the term valence.

The periodic chart of the elements is very useful in the field of chemistry and is a must for all students to understand. The following review of the chart will be needed prior to proceeding further into our chemistry review. A periodic table is available in doc-sharing for your use in this course as well as the interactive chart in the presentation.

"Valence" can be defined as the number of valence bonds, a given atom has formed, or can form, with one or more other atoms. For most elements the number of bonds can vary.

This is what our ancestors believed were all the elements

And this, is what we have found to be the elements

Table

The group represents (Vertical columns) a family of elements having similar physical and chemical properties

Group

Group 1A is called the alkali family. Because of the electron configuration, these elements tend to give up their only electron in their outer orbital and as such determines how they react with other elements. These are very active elements, Sodium (Na) for example will burn in air and explode in water. Valence = + 1

Group 1A

Group IIA are called the alkaline earth family. Because of the electron Group configuration, these elements tend to give up two electrons in their outer orbital 2A and as such determines how they react with other elements. These are also active elements chemically, but not as active as group 1. Valence = + 2

Group IIIB starts the transition elements and are called the transition groups. This is where elements begin to have properties that are not necessarily the same as their group and may react more like neighbors in the next group. These groups have variable valences.

The nitrogen group. Other groups Valence is variable. The oxygen group. Valence is variable.

The Carbon group. Very Important in organic chemistry. Valence max = + 4

The halogen group. Very reactive, they need One electron to fill their Outer orbital shell. But valence is variable. The noble Gas group, are mostly chemically inactive. Xe however is active on a nuclear level and presents problems with reactor operation as it is a neutron

Non-metals

On some periodic tables, you will see this line on the chart. Its meaning is that all elements to the left of the line are considered Metals and all elements to the right are considered nonmetals.

In our text, there are three classes of elements listed. These are metals, semi-metals and non-metals. So, with the addition of the semi-metal class the chart Looks like this. All those elements with a red slash Are considered semi-metals.

Rows of elements are called periods. The period number of an element signifies the highest unexcited energy level for an electron in that element. The number of elements in a period increases as you move down the periodic table because there are more sublevels per level as the energy level of the atom increases. As we look across the row, we see atomic mass increasing and the number of electrons in the outer shell growing until it is filled, ending with a noble gas. The next period then begins and completes with another noble gas with a full outer shell. The periods are not equal in length.
Rows

Unit 1.4 and 1.5 Chemical


bonding: Objectives:

Bonding

Define the following: Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Van der Waals forces Metallic bonds Compound Describe: The physical arrangement and bonding of a polar molecule. The three basic laws of chemical reactions State: How elements combine to form chemical compounds Explain: The probability of any two elements combining to form a compound

Define: Mixture Solvent Solubility Solute Solution Equilibrium

Ionic bonding: Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals. An electron is transferred from the metal to the nonmetal as each atom attempts to establish a complete outer shell. The metal becomes a positive ion (It lost its electron) and the nonmetal becomes a negative ion (gained an electron). The electrostatic charge now sets up, and holds the atoms together. Below is a representation of a sodium and chlorine atom forming an ionic bond to form table salt with energy release.

Bonding

Covalent bonding: covalent bonds are formed between two nonmetals by sharing their electrons with one another. An example is shown below involving two chlorine atoms. Prior to bonding, each atom is missing one electron from is outer shell. As the two chlorine atoms come together each one shares their electron with one another and satisfies both.

Bonding

Bonding

Note how the arrangement of the shared electrons cause a + charge to be set up on the hydrogen atom

This also causes a negative charge to be set up on the far end of the oxygen atom

This polarization causes a net charge across the molecule resulting in attractions between other molecules of water giving it its peculiar properties. Drop forming, surface tension etc. When ionic and covalent bonding occur, the result is a chemical compound or molecules Molecular substances are often referred to as compounds

Metallic Bonding: electromagnetic attraction between the metals atoms positive ionic charge and electrons surrounding the metal atoms. Example: copper. This promotes the ability to carry electrical current because there is a virtual sea of electrons roaming about in the metallic bonds.

Bonding

Free valence electrons moving between atoms of the metal

Van der Waals forces: are the weakest of the bonding forces. They are the forces that exist between molecules of the same type.

The electron structure directly affects chemical reactivity. Electron structure is how many and how the electrons are placed about the nucleus. Look at the entire group I elements. They may get bigger as you move from top to bottom but they all have one lone electron in the outermost shell making these elements highly reactive. Group II elements have 2 electrons in their outermost shell, these are still highly reactive yet not as reactive as group I elements. Chemical behavior is dependent upon electron configuration, and proton number.

Laws

The three basic laws of chemical reactions:

Mixtures solutions and solubility


Solutions

Mixtures: this occurs when elements and/or compounds are mixed physically
together but no chemical reaction takes place. Example: mixing salt and pepper. (heterogeneous)

Solvent: the substance that does the dissolving. Example: water. Solute: the substance that gets dissolved Example: salt. Solution: the result after a solute is dissolved by a solvent. Solubility: is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on which solvent is used as well as on temperature and pressure. Solubility is commonly expressed as a concentration, either by mass g of solute per kg of solvent, or g per L (1000 mL) of solvent, mass concentration*, molarity*, molality,* mole fraction or other similar descriptions of concentration. The maximum equilibrium amount of solute that can dissolve per amount of solvent is the solubility of that solute in that solvent under the specified conditions * See unit 1.6

Solubility

Solubility equilibrium: exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound. The equilibrium is an example of dynamic equilibrium in that some individual molecules migrate between the solid and solution phases such that the rates of dissolution and precipitation are equal to one another. When equilibrium is established, the solution is said to be saturated. The concentration of the solute in a saturated solution is known as the solubility; units of solubility may be molar (mole cm3) or expressed as mass per unit volume, such as g ml1. Solubility is temperature dependent. There are three main types of solubility equilibriums:

Simple dissolution. Dissolution with dissociation. This is characteristic of salts. The equilibrium constant is known in this case as a solubility product. Dissolution with reaction. This is characteristic of the dissolution of weak acids or weak bases in aqueous media of varying pH.

Unit 1.6 Chemical equations


Objectives:

Le Chateliers

State Le Chateliers principle. Define: ppm Molarity Density Normality Balance chemical equations that combine elements and/or compounds.

Density

Example: salts dissociate into distinct reactive species (ions such as H+, Fe3+, or Cl-). Normality accounts for any discrepancy between the concentrations of the various ionic species in a solution. In a salt such as MgCl2, there are two moles of Cl- for every mole of Mg2+, so the concentration of Cl- is said to be 2 N (read: "two normal"). Further examples are given below. It may also refer to the concentration of a solute in any solution. The normality of a solution is the number of gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of its solution. The definition of normality depends on the exact reaction intended.

Balancing

Is a ratio of parts of solute to one million parts of solution, and is usually applied to very dilute solutions. It is often found in reports of concentration of water contaminants. To calculate parts per million, divide the mass of the solute by the total mass of the solution. This number is then multiplied by 10 ^ 6 and expressed as parts per million (ppm). In dilute water solutions, we can assume that 1 mL of water-based solution has a mass of 1 gram, so 1 liter of solution has a mass of 1000 grams.

Balancing chemical equations: click to play.

Unit 1.7 Acids, Bases, Salts, and


pH Objectives:

Acids

Define: Acid Base Salt pH Alkalies Dissociation constant of water State the formula for pH State the formula for pOH Calculate the pH of a specified solution

Bases salts

Salts:

Are ionic compounds that can result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce OH- ions when dissolved in water and are basic salts and salts that hydrolyze to produce H+ ions in water are acid salts Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts. Molten salts and solutions containing dissolved salts (sodium chloride in water) are called electrolytes, as they are able to conduct electricity. (increased conductivity)

pH: the negative of the log of the hydrogen ion concentration

is a measure if the negative of the log of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter. pH = -log [H+]

pH

The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic. The pH scale is logarithmic and as a result, each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. For example, pH 4 is ten times more acidic than pH 5 and 100 times (10 times 10) more acidic than pH 6. The same holds true for pH values above 7, each of which is ten times more alkaline (another way to say basic) than the next lower whole value. For example, pH 10 is ten times more alkaline than pH 9 and 100 times (10 times 10) more alkaline than pH 8. Pure water is neutral. But when chemicals are mixed with water, the mixture can become either acidic or basic. Examples of acidic substances are vinegar and lemon juice. Lye, milk of magnesia, and ammonia are examples of basic substances.

Below is a chart showing some typical items that relate to the pH scale.

pH

Note: pure water is the center Of the scale and is used as the basis for the rest of the chart. [H3O1+] = [OH1-] The equation for the disassociation: H2O + H2O <---> H3O1+ + OH1-

The dissociation constant of water: the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached in a reversible reaction (when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction Kw = [H+][OH-] = 1x10-14 at 25C where K is the constant

Constants

pOH: is a measure of the negative log of the [ OH-] ion concentration in moles per liter: pOH = -log10[OH-]

Please click on the movie below to learn more about constants and pH

This concludes this presentation for unit one chemistry. Also review the lecture notes and take the self check prior to taking the unit one exam.