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A PRESENTATION

ON
A STUDY ON RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN INDIA

Contents

India power scenario Some salient features Types of renewable energy Solar energy Hydro electric power Wind energy Biomass Biofuel Conclusion

INDIA POWER SCENARIO


A total of 185.5 GW installed capacity as on November 2011. 65% thermal, 21% hydro and rest being of solar , wind ,small hydro , biomass , nuclear etc. As on December 2011, the installed capacity of wind power 15.9 GW. As of January 2012, the per capita total consumption in India to be 778 kWh. As of August 2011 , the states and UTs of India with power surplus were Himachal Pradesh , Gujarat , Sikkim , Tripura, Delhi, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Indias network losses 32% in 2010 in which major losses were because of transmission and distribution while around 10% was because of theft.

Some salient features


Indian clean energy sector is a US $20 bn opportunity annually. The total potential of small hydro power and biomass energy is estimated at 15 GW and 18 GW respectively. Global 3rd best investment destination in renewable energy sector. Global rank 8th for investments made in clean energy technology. Cleantech sector has the potential to generate 10 mn jobs in India by 2025.

Difference b/w Clean energy and Renewable energy


Clean energy:

It is simply any form of energy which is created with clean, harmless and non polluting methods. Renewable energy: It is any type of energy which comes from renewable natural resources, such as wind , sunlight , rain , geothermal, biomass , tides etc.

Types of renewable energy


The various types of renewable energy resources are given below 1. Solar energy 2. Hydro Electric power 3. Wind energy 4. Bio-mass energy 5. Bio fuels 6. Geothermal power etc.

Solar energy
The total energy received by earth annually is 35000 times the energy used by man. In other words, the suns power flow reaching the earth is typically about 1000 watts per sq. mtr. India gets solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/sq. mtr./ day across the country.

Solar energy production


1.

2.

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4.

The first indian solar thermal power project (2*50MW) is in progress in Phalodi (Rajasthan). In November 2009, govt. of India launched its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. India plans to generate 1 GW of power by 2013 and up to 20GW grid based solar power and cover 20 mn sq. mtrs. with solar energy collectors by 2020. Further it is again be increased to 100 GW and 200 GW by 2030 and 2050 respectively.

Solar energy applications


Solar water heaters Solar cookers SPV systems

Advantages
Long life Various forms of energy.

Disadvantages of solar power


Initial cost. Large area. Pollution decreases the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Useful in days only.

Hydro electric power


Here the potential of falling water under gravity is utilized to rotate a turbine which is coupled to a generator and hence electricity is generated. In 1878, the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed in England. In 1898, the power plant at Darjeeling was established with capacity of 130 kW. In 1902, the power plant of capacity 4.5 MW was established in Karnataka.

India hydro potential


India ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro potential on global scenario. Indias total viable hydro potential is assessed to be about 84GW. With 56 sites for pumped storage schemes, an aggregate installed capacity of 94GW. At present ,Indias total hydro power installed capacity is around 39GW.

P= 735.5 QH/75 (kW) P= power generated Q= discharge, m3/s H= waterhead , m = overall efficiency of turbine alternator set.

Advantages
Flexibility Low power cost Suitability for industrial applications. Reduced CO2 emissions. Other uses of reservoir.

Disadvantages
Initial capital cost. Flooding Rehabilitation problem Serious geological damage. Neighboring countries disputes. Alteration of natural water table level.

Wind energy

The development of wind power in India began in the 1983-84 towards the end of the Sixth plan. Over the last decade global wind installations have continued to grow at an average growth rate of around 30%. The gross potential for wind energy in India is around 48.5GW.

As of December 2011, the total installed capacity of wind power was 15.9 GW.
It is estimated that 6 GW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012.

The states producing wind power are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat , Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh, Kerala ,Orissa, West Bengal arranged in descending order. The state of Gujarat is estimated to have the maximum gross wind power potential in India, with a potential of 10.6 GW.

Power generated= air density projected area (average wind capacity)3

Disadvantages
Varying strength of wind Necessity of large wind farms Noisy in nature

Biomass energy

Oldest means of energy. Biomass is converted into gas through a gasifier after combustion. This biomass could be used to generate steam or power or used as a fuel. Distributed form of energy.

Biomass gasifier

Rice husk , crop stalks , small wood chips, other agro-residues can be used in biomass gasifier technologies. During 2011 , India installed 25 rice husk based gasifier systems systems for distributed power generation in 70 remote villages of Bihar. In addition, gasifier systems are being installed at 60 rice mills in India. During the year , biomass gasifier projects of 1.2 MW in Gujarat and 0.5 MW in Tamil Nadu were installed.

Biogas
Indian govt. has approved 21 projects with aggregate capacity of 37016 cubic meter per day, of which 2 projects have been successfully commissioned by December 2011 These projects have aim for generation, purification/enrichment , bottling and piped distribution of gas. During 2011, some 45000 small scale biogas plants were installed. India has installed 4.44 million small scale biogas plants.

India is rich in biomass and has a potential of 16881 MW(agro-residues and plantations) , 2700MW (energy recovery from waste). Biomass power industry in India generating more than 5000 million units of electricity is very attractive.

Advantages
Solid waste management Ecological balance.

Disadvantages
Pollution Land usage Expensive technology Limited potential

Bio fuel
It is an alternative fuel that can be used in diesel engines and provides power similar to conventional diesel fuel. Today , 21 countries worldwide, produce biodiesel. 11 million hectares can yield a revenue of approximately Rs. 20000 cr a year provide employment to over 12 million people both for plantation and running of extraction plants. India has 50 million Ha of wasteland.

Production methods
Jatropha is one of the means by which the bio fuel can be produced. Another option is Algae .If output is compared in terms of oil in liter per acre , it is better than Jatropha by 100 times. Here input is CO2. Just using these two things algae grows and from here oil can be extracted which further can be utilized to produce bio-fuel.

Advantages
Used in unmodified form. Biodegradable. Environment friendly. Economical.

Disadvantages
Non availability. Lack of govt. policies. Alone use is difficult.

Conclusion
By the technical advancement and research the price of production can be laid down. Tapping Indias wind, solar, biomass, hydro etc. power can make many more jobs. Renewable energy is the need of time. With a strong economic growth, we have also the responsibility for a healthy environment.

References

Maps of India http://www.mapsofindia.com U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_energy_stat.htm Global Energy Network Institute (GENI) www.geni.org ZenithEnergy http://www.zenithenergy.com/index.HTM http://www.greenbusinesscentre.com/renenegy .asp Centre for Wind Energy Technology www.cwet.tn.nic.in

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