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# P24L

## Transistor Biasing & Ac analysis

Semester III, 2007

2
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Voltage Divider Biasing
The previous bias configurations had bias currents and voltages that were dependent
on the value of . However, is temperature sensitive and sometimes not very well
defined, which leads to small instabilities in these bias setup. The voltage divider
configuration is one in which its DC bias values can be made independent of the
transistors .

Recall that the input base resistance R
i
= (+1)R
E
R
E
. If this value is made very
large with respect to R
2
of the voltage divider network then the transistor biasing will
be strongly independent of . The analysis is on the next slide.
Temperature dependence of
Voltage Divider
Biasing
3
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Voltage Divider Analysis:
We can redraw the base bias circuit as shown below. If R
E
> 10R
2
, then the current
I
B
will be negligible with respect to R
2
, making the base voltage V
B
solely dependent
on the voltage divider effect of R
1
and R
2
.

2 1
2
R R
V R
V
CC
B
+
=
( )
E C C CC CE
E C
E E C C CC CE
E
E
E
E BE B
R R I V V
I I
R I R I V V
R
V
I
V V V
+ =
~
=
=
+ =
From the full voltage divider circuit
4
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Example of voltage divider configuration:
Determine V
CE
and I
C
for the circuit below.

Check that R
E
> 10R
2
is true

140 x 1.5k > 10 x 3.9k

V
k k
V k
R R
V R
V
CC
B
2
9 . 3 39
22 9 . 3
2 1
2
=
+

=
+
=
( )
( )
V
k k
R R I V V
I I
mA
k
V
R
V
I
V V V V
E C C CC CE
E C
E
E
E
BE B E
03 . 12
5 . 1 10 10 87 . 0 22
87 . 0
5 . 1
3 . 1
3 . 1 7 . 0 2
3
=
+ =
+ =
~
= = =
= = =

Therefore,
5
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The Transistor as a Switch
Another very common application of a
transistor is that of performing switching
actions. Note (as shown in the figure)
that there is no base-bias current, i.e
I
B
= 0.

For best design, the Q point must
switch from cutoff to saturation, as
shown on the load line plot. At
Saturation
C
CC
C
R
V
I
Sat
=
and
Therefore for saturation to occur,
we must ensure that:
DC
C
B
Sat
I
I
|
~
max
DC
C
B
Sat
I
I
|
>
i.e. must have adequate base drive current
Determine if I
B
is
6
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Relay Driver

Current Mirrors

Q1 and Q2 must match, i.e. they must have the
same exact parameter, etc, so that I
B1
= I
B2
.
R sets the I
B
and I
C
currents.

R
V
I I
CC
7 . 0
= =
This is used extensively in
Integrated Circuit Designs
7
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Logic Gates

8
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
AC Analysis of BJT transistors
Two types of analyses are usually used depending on the voltage and currents of the
input ac signal relative to the bias voltages and currents. They are small-signal
analysis and large-signal analysis.

To explain the transistor operation during small signal analysis, one of three models
are usually used: the r
e
model, the hybrid model, and the hybrid equivalent
model. The r
e
model is a reduced version of the hybrid model which is exclusively
used for high frequency analysis.

A device model is a combination of properly chosen circuit elements that best
approximates the actual behavior of the device under specific operating
conditions.

The first step in modeling the ac behavior of the transistor is to determine its ac
equivalent circuit and use it to replace the transistor circuit symbol in the schematic.
Normal circuit analysis is then performed.

The next slide shows an example of how a typical CE circuit is usually converted to
its ac equivalent circuit. This is achieve by setting all DC sources as ground potential
(or ac ground) and capacitors as ac shorts.
9
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Small signal ac modeling of a transistor circuit
(a) Typical CE circuit
(b) Removal of dc supply and inserting
ac shorts for capacitors
(c) Redrawn for small signal ac analysis
Short out capacitors
Set Vdc to ac gnd
Re-arranging
10
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The Hybrid Model
The hybrid model is used for high frequency modeling of the transistor. We will
apply this to frequency analysis discussions later on.

The r
e
Model
This model is more suitable for when transistor circuit is used at dc and low
frequencies (e.g. audio). Its the same as the hybrid model except that the high
frequency components are not included
11
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Transistor Models
We will only be looking r
e
model, and later on at the hybrid model.

The r
e
Transistor Model for the CE Fixed Biased Configuration

and r
o
are given in spec sheet;
and r
e
is determined from dc
Analysis

e B i
r R Z | // = but
e B
r R | 10 >
therefore
e i
r Z | ~
The output impedance is determined
when there is no input
O C
r R Z //
0
=
but
C O
R r 10 >
therefore
C
R Z ~
0
12
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The r
e
Transistor Model for the CE Fixed Biased Configuration

The resistors r
O
and R
C
are in parallel, therefore V
out
is
) // (
O C C O
r R I V =
but
B C
I I | = and
e
i
B
r
V
I
|
=
( )
O C
e
i
O
r R
r
V
V //
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
| substituting
We can now express this in terms of Gain = A
V
= V
o
/ V
i
( )
e
O C
i
O
V
r
r R
V
V
A
//
= =
But if
C O
R r 10 >
then
e
C
V
r
R
A =
Notice that although
is absent from these equation,
the value of r
e
is still dependent
E
e
I
mV
r
26
=
13
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Phase Relationship
The negative sign in the previous gain equation implies that the phase of the output
signal is the reversal of that of the input. That is, there is a 180
o
phase change.

14
Ex. 5.4 in text
15
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The r
e
Transistor Model for the CE Voltage Divider Configuration

{ }
( )
)
`

>

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
> ~ =
=
C O
e
C
e
O C
i
O
V
O C
e
i
O
C O C O C O
e i
R r if
r
R
r
r R
V
V
A
r R
r
V
V
R r if R r R Z
r R R Z
10
//
//
10 //
// //
2 1
|
|
|
16
Example 5.5 from text
What is the purpose of the
Emitter capacitor?

Read the analysis for CE emitter
Bias Config (page 261)
17
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
Darlington Transistors
Two BJT can be connected so that they act as one transistor with a very large B. This
B is the product of the two betas of the transistors. Such a setup is called a
Darlington Pair and is shown in the figure below.

2 1 Q Q D
| | | =
2
| | =
D
If the transistors are identical, then