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Design and development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle

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Objective

This project involves the development of two UAV rectangular wings, encompassing the entire process from design to manufacture, and finally its implementation on an aircraft and performing flight tests for their validation. project can be divided into three main components namely (1) Design and Analysis (2) Fabrication (3) Flight Test

The

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Literature survey

Optimisation Of The Design Of UAV Wing by J.Alexander,

S.Prakash, Dr.BSM.Augustine

Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Wing Design and Manufacture by Chong Shao Ming. Design and Development of Fully Composite Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Mini-UAV) by Kailash Kotwani.
Development Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) For Wildlife Surveillance by Kyuho Lee. Experimental Determination Of Unmanned Aircraft Inertial Properties By Flvio Luiz de Silva Bussamra,Carlos

Miguel Montestruque Vilchez,Jlio Csar Santos.

DESIGN REQUIREMENT AND SPECIFICATION


Maximum gross takeoff 10kg weight Payload Maximum Cruise Speed Stall speed Maximum speed Minimum endurance Cruise altitude Engine Propeller 2kg 25m/sec 14m/s 30m/sec 3 hours 1000feet 20cc DLE engine Two blade composite propeller

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Conceptual design
Can be represented by following block diagram.

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Gross Weight Estimation


The gross takeoff weight can be estimated as GTOW=Empty weight+ payload weight + fuel weight

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Empty Weight Estimation


Engine weight+ related accessories=750gms Fuselage weight+ tail weight=1000gms Wing weight=1200gms Landing gear=500gms 4 Servos=100gms Others=500gms

Hence the total empty weight=4050gms =4kgs(approx)

Fuel Weight Estimation


The fuselage contain a fuel tank of 2 liters capacity, hence it

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Airfoil selection

Airfoil specially designed for low Reynolds number had to be selected. Low Reynolds number range is from 200000 to 500000. At low Reynolds number boundary layer is less capable of handling an adverse pressure gradient without separation. Many criteria put into the selection of the airfoil for this gust resistant flood assessment UAV Which was expected to have a good powered glide under any conditions of flight perturbations.

Airfoil Selection criteria

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High maximum lift coefficient For a good glide at high angles of attack. Design Lift coefficient It is the Lift Coefficient at which it has maximum L/D ratio. Here it was chosen at approximately half of stall angle. Airfoil Camber

If a wing is thick, its easy to build it strong. Also it increases the stability of the aircraft in glider cruise.

Stall Stall characteristics play an important role in airfoil selection.

The stall angle of the airfoil should be high i.e. around 11 to 13 degree in order to get high lift without an early stall.

Other airfoil consideration

Wing Design

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Wing Geometry

Aspect Ratio

The aspect ratio of a rectangular wing is the ratio of wing span by chord. For powered gliders aspect ratio is chosen as 8.

Wing Parameter Calculation


Selection of proper wing area and chord length is very important in the design of wing. Parameters given:

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Wing area
Wing area of an aircraft is given by the formula

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S at v=14
12

10

Wing span in m^2

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Lift Coefficient

Chord
Chord, velocity and Reynolds number are related as

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12

10

Reynolds number

0 0 2 4 6 Velocity in m/s 8 10 12

Conclusion
q

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Based on detailed Literature Survey, the procedure for wing designing, including the selection of airfoil was done. The wing parameters such as aspect ratio, chord, span and area was then calculated using spreadsheets and MATLAB for the given wing design requirements. Hence leading to the fabrication of the wing as the next step.

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Thank you