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Communication And its barriers

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Adam R, Jay W, Andy W, Jay S, Hannah T, Hannah S, Louise W, Louise W, Andy S, Kelly W, Caroline H.

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Environmental Barriers to

communication
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Environmental barriers to communication


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Noise Lighting Bystanders

Pearsons 2010 & Gregory&Ward 2010

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The DoH (2010) state that environment must be appropriate to encourage effective communication

How to overcome the barrier

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Increase/ decrease lighting as appropriate patient noise reduced or move the

Background

Bystanders
DoH (2010)

asked to move on

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Communication With Children & Overcoming Communication Barriers

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Most Likely Barriers to Overcome With Children


Age Language Selective Disability Social

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/ Elective Mute

Issues

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Overcoming These Potential Barriers

IDENTIFY THE BARRIER TO OVERCOME IT!


Use The Parent Find a Common Ground Use All Your Communication Skills Verbal & Non verbal

Barriers when treating with the elderly


There are many potential barriers when communicating with the elderly, some of these barriers may include:

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Poor hearing or sight Social isolation Memory loss problems Processing information Bereavements Loss of cognitive and physical function Depression Poor mobility Confusion

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Further Research

Surveys has shown that a majority emergency health care workers do not feel comfortable treating the elderly and say that elderly people are time consuming, difficult to evaluate, unable to understand or learn the circumstance they are in and senile, additionally many professionals say that becoming old is a unfortunate state of physical and cognitive function, this view often leads to focusing on the disease rather than prevention (Wykle & Gueldner 2011).

Further research cont.


Depression

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is often missed and untreated in older people and the rate for suicide is higher in the elderly than any other age group. dealing with the elderly in the prehospital setting paramedics are often treating chronic conditions more often than acute conditions (Caroline et al 2010).

When

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Overcoming the Barriers


Approach

with respect and dignity Pilot and attentive attitude to patients concerns Formal approach and direct eye contact Treat them as individuals not just as elderly patients Dont make assumptions about their health because of their age Be patient for a response when asking questions
(Macdonald

2004)

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Physical Disabilities

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Most disabilities are not cause by freak accidents!


Certain

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impairments that may cause physical disability are: of limbs Sclerosis syndrome disease

Loss

Multiple Heart

Downs Cancer

Diabetes Arthritis

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Speech and Language Impairment


Speech disorder- when a person is unable to produce correct speech sounds Examples:

Difficulties pronouncing words Articulation disorders

Stuttering

(American Speech-Language Association 2012)

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How to overcome this barrier


Speech and language therapist.
Speech

exercises tailored to the problem.

The

facts: around 2.5 million people in the UK have a speech or language difficulty. of stroke sufferers have a persisting speech and language disorder.

30%

(Council for Disability Awareness 2010)

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Visual Impairment
Visual

impairment is the acceptable generic term that refers to all levels of vision loss. Vision loss can make it difficult or impossible for a person to do some things.

(Hardy et al 2007)

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Braille
the remarkable system of dots invented nearly 200 years ago by Louis Braille (Royal National Institute for Blind People 2011)

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Hearing Impairments
Hearing

impairment is any degree of reduction of the ability to apprehend sound.

(McGraw-Hill

Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine 2002) by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Makaton

-this is a language programme where speech is used alongside gestures/signs/symbols/pictures. http://www.makaton.org/

There

is an electronic device that turns speech into writing... this is called the Minicom (a service available for service users who are deaf/ hard of hearing.) Also the

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In pairs... Spell the word paramedic

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If you're a caregiver, try to remember that although your loved one may appear uninterested in communicating, it could be that the disease has simply made him or her incapable of showing a desire to communicate. That is why it's crucial to always strive for meaningful communication with your loved one at every stage of the disease.

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Mental Heath

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One

in four adults experience mental illness at some point during their lifetime and one in six experience symptoms at any one time. is often easier to see the obvious sings of physical health and illness than may be apparent for mental health and mental illness.

It

Just

as the absence of obvious physical illness or injury is only a foundation for physical health, the absence of symptoms of clear mental illness is only a foundation for understanding the concept of mental health.

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complete state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. of us suffer no clearly diagnosed mental illness, but may often live and experience life in ways that are well below our potential for productivity and contentment. Impacts Impacts

Most

Physical Mental

World Health Organisation Mental

suffering with mental health problems have no visible disability and this can lead to difficulties in communicating effectively. Failing to recognise such barriers can result in messages being misunderstood and communication health conditions University 2006). Because mental breakdown (Open are sometimes not obvious, sufferers can find themselves the victim's of discrimination.

Lupton 2000 (2000) Many people

Barriers to communicating with people with Mental Health problems Lupton

Batty (2004) published an article on the discrimatory behaviours of businesses against people with mental health problems. These behaviours varied from: Employers forcing employees to sign contracts with Click to edit Master subtitle Insurance clauses relating to their mental health; style companies not paying out for mental health related It could be argued that the discrimination is due barriers or illnesses and companies persuading customers with severe unwillingness to be educated about the causes or reasons mental health problems to sign up for services they do not for someone having a disorder. need or have the use of.

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Mangal and Mangal (2009) found that there many different factors effecting communication with people with mental health problems. To ensure that the message is understood and conveyed correctly there are several factors that must be addressed. They also believed that utilising different types of communication such as use of touch and eye contact must be employed. The following barriers could result in communication breakdown: Prejudices and how people with mental health problems feel they are seen.

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Non-attention and ignorance to personal feelings, Click to thoughts and wishes. edit Master subtitle style

Feelings of insecurity and isolation which can in turn lead to anxiety and depression.

How to overcome barriers in communication


Mental Health

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How to overcome barriers in communication


HPC 1a.1 understand the need to act in the best interests of service users at all times

1b.3 be able to demonstrate effective and appropriate skills in communicating information, advice, instruction and professional opinion to colleagues, service users, their relatives and carers.

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ITS A REQUIREMENT!

(HPC

What can you do?


Respect LISTEN! Dont argue/contradict the patient Never Assume Set Limits Be aware of symptoms Not a Hot Potato Appropriately Touch Use other resources Age dependant Never Judge/discriminate Be aware of spatial elements Community Resources

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(Shives

Religion and communication


o

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The nature of paramedics works means that meeting people from cultures different from our own is an every day occurrence. As the professional it is our responsibility to consider

We will be looking into the religious beliefs of Islam and Hinduism. What considerations must we think about when dealing with people from different religions and cultures?

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Hinduism
Some It

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things to consider:

is important to use a persons title such as Mr, Miss or Mrs. slightly older people use Sir or Maam. tall with your hands on your hips is seen as aggressive. avoided. of the opposite sex in public is to be

For

Standing

Touching

The

left hand is seen as unclean and therefore avoid using it.


(A to Z Manner and Etiquette 2004)

Islam
Customs to note

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Individuals following the faith of Islam may avoid the shaking of hands with a person of the opposite sex (Kwintessential Ltd). In the aspect of communication what issues could you see arising from this? Fasting is a practice adopted during the month of Ramadan, it requires fasting of food and drink (nothing must pass the lips) between sunrise and sunset (Kwintessential Ltd). In prehospital care this could have possible implications to treatment and also to communication, what could be some of these implications?

Q&A

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It is said that before entering a Hindu home you should remove all footwear. Within a paramedic setting do you think it is appropriate and practical to do this? we always able to get away with not using the left hand? What can we do to try and combat this? it our responsibility to try and convey formalities in our patients native tongue? we avoid the touching of the opposite sex all the time in the pre-hospital environment? be done to help this?

Are

Is

Can

to Z Manner and Etiquette (A What could


2004)

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References

Kwintessential Ltd (no date noted) Islam in the Workplace suggested practice for HR personnel. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/culturalservices/articles/islam-in-the-workplace.html

References
A

to Z of manners and etiquette (2004) http:// www.a-to-z-of-manners-and-etiquette.com/aboutus.htm [31/01/2012]

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Reference list
Department of Health (2010) Essence of Care Benchmarks for Communication. http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/d h_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/documents/digitalasset/dh_11997 3.pdf [24/01/2012]

https://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/FEAndVocational/HealthAndS Gregory P & Ward A (2010) Sanders Paramedic Textbook. Elsevier, China Images http://www.oxstyle.com/2011/05/noise-pollution.html http://www.lightingtoronto.net/

http://www.dreamstime.com/editorial-photo-diverse-crowds-in-the-scoop-at-t

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References
Equality

Act (2010) Disability and the Equality Act 2010 http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/DisabledPeople/Ri ghtsAndObligations/DisabilityRights/DG_4001 068 [15th February 2012] World (2010) Definition of Disabilities

Disabled

http://www.disabled world.com /disability/ types/[15th February 2012]


Carol

Banks (ND) Mobility Impairments http://library.thinkquest.org/11799/data/mobili ty.html [8th February 2012] Plus (2011) Mobility Aids

Medicine

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Refereneces
Health

Professions Council (2007) Standards of Proficiency. London. HPC L.R (2008) Basic Concepts, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. 7th Edition. Philidelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Shives

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Reference list Macdonald E Edited (2004) Difficult Conversations in Medicine. Oxford, Oxford University Press Caroline N, Macdonald RD & Burgess RJ (2010) Emergency Care in the Streets 6th Edition. London, John & Bartlett Publishers Wykle M & Gueldner S.H (2011) Ageing Well: Gerontological Education for Nurses and other Health Professionals. London, John &Bartlett Publishers

References:

Batty D (2004) The Guardian: People with mental illness face widespread discrimination. Online version, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2004/apr/28/equality.me ntalhealth [6th February 2012]

Lupton D (2000) Mental Health 2: Fear. http://www.crippencartoons.co.uk/cartoons/mentalhealth/m ental02.shtml [7th February 2012] Mengal S and Mengal U (2009) Essentials of communication. New Dehli. Asoke Publishers.
Click to edit Master subtitle style Open University (2006) Recognising barriers: Mental health difficulties. http://www.open.ac.uk/inclusiveteaching/pages/inclusiveteaching/recognising-barriers-mental-health-difficulties.php [6th February 2012]

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