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Cardiovascular System-Heart

Functions of Heart Mechanism of vasodialation Atherosclerosis& Angina & Myocardial infaction SBP/DBP Heart Rate Hypertension & Ways to treat it.

The heart has four chambers. Two atria act as Two ventricles act as pumps.



The heart has four valves for: Pumping action of the heart. Maintaining unidirectional blood flow.

Functions of the Heart

Generates blood pressure Routes blood
Heart separates pulmonary and systemic circulation

Ensures one-way blood flow

Heart valves ensure one-way flow

Cardiac Cycle
The heart is two pumps that work together, right (pulmonary) and left (systemic) half Repetitive, sequential contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers Blood moves through circulatory system from areas of higher to lower pressure.
Contraction of heart produces the pressure i.e called BLOOD PRESSURE(BP) During systole(systolic BP) Diastole(Diastolic BP)

Mechanism of circulation

Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava, enters the right atrium, passes into the right ventricle, and from here it is ejected to the pulmonary artery. Oxygenated blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, passes into the left ventricle, and is then ejected to the aorta.

Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD) is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, caused largely by the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low-density lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.

Heart rate
Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm). Heart rate can vary as the body's need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide changes, such as during exercise or sleep.

Angina pectoris
Angina pectoris, commonly known as angina, is chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood, thus a lack of oxygen supply and waste removal) of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels). Coronary artery disease, the main cause of angina, is due to atherosclerosis of the cardiac arteries.

Myocardial infarction (MI)

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery.

Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. Blood pressure readings are usually given as two numbers -- for example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can be too high.

Types of Anti Hypertensives.

Inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system ANGIOTENSICNO NVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS- Captopril, Ramipril, ANGIOTENSIN ANTAGONISTS(Angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs)- Losartan, Telmisartan.

There are two distinct goals of drug the -.-CFIF: (a) Relief of congestirze/lorto' utput sr::-:and restoration of cardiac performaf,iItrottoptic rirrrgs-digoxin," dopamine, amrinone / milrinone D iu rc t ics-Iurosemide, thiazides Vasodilators-AcE inhibitors/AT i.- ' nists,h ydralazinen, i t rate,n i t ropr r . t : --. Bblocker-Metoprolol, bisoprolol, ccli' : -ft) Arrest/reversal of disease progress . prolongation of survival: ACE inhibitors/AT1 o nt n gonis fs( ARBs pblockers AI dos te ro nea ntngonis-tS pironolactot' -