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# Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations

## Dr. Bernard Chen Ph.D.

University of Central Arkansas Spring 2010

Outline

Microoperations

## Manos Computer Figure 5-4

Memory Unit 4096x16 WRITE AR LD LD LD

s0 s1 s2

Bus
7

1
CLR

INR PC

2
CLR

INR
DR INR AC

3
CLR

4
CLR

LD

INR INPR IR

5 6
CLR Clock

## LD TR LD LD 16-bit common bus

Computer System Architecture, Mano, Copyright (C) 1993 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

INR OUTR

Arithmetic Microoperations
A Microoperation is an elementary operation performed with the data stored in registers. Usually, it consist of the following 4 categories: Register transfer: transfer data from one register to another Arithmetic microoperation Logic microoperation Shift microoperation

Arithmetic Microoperations
Symbolic designation R3 R1 + R2 R3 R1 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 + 1 R3 R1 + R2 + 1 R1 R1 + 1 R1 R1 1 Description Contents of R1 plus R2 transferred to R3 Contents of R1 minus R2 transferred to R3 Complement the contents of R2 (1s complement) 2s Complement the contents of R2 (negate) R1 plus the 2s complement of R2 (subtract) Increment the contents of R1 by one Decrement the contents of R1 by one

Multiplication and division are not basic arithmetic operations Multiplication : R0 = R1 * R2 Division : R0 = R1 / R2

Arithmetic Microoperations

A single circuit does both arithmetic addition and subtraction depending on control signals. Arithmetic addition: R3 R1 + R2 (Here + is not logical OR. It denotes addition)

It has 3 input and 2 output

To implement an arithmetic adder for multiple-bit inputs, we need to treat the carry out from the lower bit as a third input ( it becomes carry in for the current bit) in addition to the two input bits at the current bit position. X1 Y1 Z1 S 1 C1 X0 Y0 Z0 S0 C0 +

It adds 3-bits, it has 3-inputs and 2-outputs

We will use x, y and z for inputs and s for sum and c for carry are the two outputs. x y z c s The truth table 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

1
1 1

0
1 1

1
0 1

1
1 1

0
0 1

Putting them together we get:
S= x y z C= z (x y) + xy

## The logic diagram for the full adder

Arithmetic Microoperations

Arithmetic subtraction: R3 R1 + R2 + 1 where R2 is the 1s complement of R2. Adding 1 to the ones complement is equivalent to taking the 2s complement of R2 and adding it to R1.

The addition and subtraction operations cane be combined into one common circuit by including an exclusive-OR gate with each full-adder. XOR M b 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

0 1 1 0

M = 0: Note that B XOR 0 = B. This is exactly the same as the binary adder with carry in C0 = 0.

M = 1: Note that B XOR 1 = B (flip all B bits). The outputs of the XOR gates are thus the 1s complement of B. M = 1 also provides a carry in 1. The entire operation is: A + B + 1.

Outline

Microoperations

## Manipulating the bits stored in a register

Logic Microoperations

LOGIC CIRCUIT
A variety of logic gates are inserted for each bit of registers. Different bitwise logical operations are selected by select signals.

Example

Extend the previous logic circuit to accommodate XNOR, NAND, NOR, and the complement of the second input.

S2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

S1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

S0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Output XY XY XY
A (X Y)

(X Y) (X Y)
B

## More Logic Microoperation

X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 F0 F1 F2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

## Boolean function Microoperation Name

F0 = 0 F1 = xy F2 = xy F3 = x F4 = xy F5 = y F6 = x y F7 = x+y

## F0 Clear F AB AND F AB FA Transfer A F AB FB Transfer B F A B Ex-OR F AB OR

F8 = (x+y) F AB NOR F9 = (x y) F A B Ex-NOR F10 = y FB Compl-B F11 = x+y F AB F12 = x FA Compl-A F13 = x+y F AB F14 = (xy) F AB NAND F15 = 1 F all 1s set to all 1s

Homework 1

Outline

Microoperations

## 4-6 Shift Microoperations

Shift Microoperations :

Shift microoperations are used for serial transfer of data Three types of shift microoperation : Logical, Circular, and Arithmetic

Shift Microoperations
Symbolic designation R shl R R shr R R cil R R cir R R ashl R R ashr R Description Shift-left register R Shift-right register R Circular shift-left register R Circular shift-right register R Arithmetic shift-left R Arithmetic shift-right R

## TABLE 4-7. Shift Microoperations

Logical Shift

A logical shift transfers 0 through the serial input The bit transferred to the end position through the serial input is assumed to be 0 during a logical shift (Zero inserted)

## Logical Shift Example

1. Logical shift: Transfers 0 through the serial input. R1 shl R1 Logical shift-left R2 shr R2 Logical shift-right (Example) Logical shift-left 10100011 01000110 (Example) Logical shift-right 10100011 01010001

Circular Shift

The circular shift circulates the bits of the register around the two ends without loss of information

## Circular Shift Example

Circular shift-left
Circular shift-right

R1 cil R1 R 2 cir R 2

## (Example) Circular shift-right

10100011 is shifted to 11010001

Arithmetic Shift

An arithmetic shift shifts a signed binary number to the left or right An arithmetic shift-left multiplies a signed binary number by 2 An arithmetic shift-right divides the number by 2 In arithmetic shifts the sign bit receives a special treatment

## Arithmetic Shift Right

Arithmetic right-shift: Rn-1 remains unchanged; Rn-2 receives Rn-1, Rn-3 receives Rn-2, so on. For a negative number, 1 is shifted from the sign bit to the right. A negative number is represented by the 2s complement. The sign bit remained unchanged.

Example 1

Example 2

## Arithmetic Shift Left

The operation is same with Logic shift-left The only difference is you need to check overflow problem (Check BEFORE the shift)
Carry out Sign bit

R2 ashl R2
LSB

Rn-1

Rn-2
0 insert

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

## 1010 (-6) 0100 (overflow)

Example

example: 011011 SHL SHR CiL CiR ASHL ASHR 110110 001101 110110 101101 Overflow 001101