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TOWARDS EXCELLENCE IN CHEMISTRY

BY
NORIZAN ISMAIL SMKMS

Pendahuluan Tidak semua pelajar yang cemerlang akan memperolehi keputusan gred A1 atau A2 dalam subjek kimia. Begitu juga tidak semua pelajar yang tidak cemerlang tidak akan memperolehi gred A1 atau A2. Biasa berlaku, pelajar begitu yakin boleh menjawab soalan dengan betul, tetapi apabila keputusan dikeluarkan, jauh dari yang diharapkan. Kenapa begitu ? Panduan ini bukan menjamin calon akan memperolehi gred A1 atau A2. Calon mestilah mempunyai pengetahuan kimia sedia ada atau asas yang lengkap, matang dan terkini. Dengan pengetahuan tersebut dan kemahiran penggunaan teknik-teknik bagaimana hendak menjawab soalan, keputusan cemerlang amat mudah dicapai. Jawapan yang diterima oleh Lembaga Peperiksaan Kementerian Pendidikan tidak semestinya yang paling tepat, tetapi kemahiran teknik menjawab yang calon perolehi sekurang-kurangnya dapat membantu mereka menjawab ke tahap terbaik yang diharapkan dalam skema SPM. Oleh itu pendedahan teknik bagaimana hendak menjawab soalan amat penting sebelum calon mengambil peperiksaan Kimia kertas 4541.

Beberapa kesilapan yang sering dibuat oleh calon semasa menjawab kertas ini.
1. Menggunakan simbol atau formula bagi nama bahan kimia dalam huraian.

2. Dalam huraian eksperimen tidak memberi keadaan bahan tindak balas dengan lengkap seperti kepekatan larutan, pemanasan kuat atau perlahan dan senarai radas tidak lengkap.
3. Melukis gambar rajah bagi eksperimen dengan seluruh gabus dalam mulut bekas dan hujung salur penghantar lebih tinggi dari permukaan air semasa mengutip gas. 4. Menggunakan kependekan (abbreviations) untuk istilah-istilah yang penting, umpamanya j.a.r. s.e.k dan sebagainya. Amalan ini tidak digalakkan langsung. 5. Tidak teliti. Umpamanya bacaan awal termometer dan bacaan akhir tidak dicatatkan.

A. Tujuan Kertas Peperiksaan Kimia SPM4541 ialah untuk menguji:a) pengetahuan prinsip dan konsep kimia b) kebolehan memahami fakta-fakta kimia c) kebolehan menggunakan pengetahuan dan prinsip kimia d) kebolehan menggunakan alat serta kemahiran membuat pemerhatian e) kebolehan menyelesaikan masalah

Exam Formatte
4 papers Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Science Practical Work Assesment SPWA (PEKA)

PAPER 1
50

objective questions knowledge (no 1 20) understanding (no 21 35) application (no 36 50) 25 easy 15 intermediate 10 advance @ ratio 5 : 3 : 2

PAPER 2
SECTION

A STRUCTURE

6-8 QUESTONS, ANSWER ALL

SECTION
SECTION

B LIMITED RESPOND
C OPENED RESPOND

2 QUESTIONS, CHOOSE ONE

2 QUESTIONS, CHOOSE ONE

Paper 2 Item construction


No 1 more knowledge (6k, 3u) No 2 more understanding (4k, 5u) No 3- more aplication (3k, 3u, 3a) No 4, 5,6 sintesis and analysis Essei Section B knowledge, aplication, analysis _ Section C Aplication, analysis, syntesis

ANSWERING STRUCTURE QUESTIONS


READ THE QUESTION STUDY THE FIGURE/TABLE GIVEN UNDERLINE FACT/ DATA ANSWER DONT REWRITE THE QUESTION ONLY WRITE WHAT NEEDED POINT- REFER TO MARKS GIVEN FOLLOW THE TIPS DONT EXAGGERATE

HOW TO ANSWER ESSAY QUESTIONS


SPEND NOT MORE THAN ONE AND A HALF HOUR FOR THIS SECTION READ ALL QUESTIONS CHOOSE 2 QUESTIONS One in each section B and C SCETCH THE POINTS Points refers to marks Read Questions WRITE THE ANSWER Simple sentence One sentence for each point Follow the tips FIGURE CALCULATION GRAPH

. . .

BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING CHEMISTRY

KNOWING PARTICLES
Sulfur Dioxide Zinc Iodine Oxygen Water Iron(II) chloride

Chromium

Chemical Formulae
Sodium chloride Argentum Nitrate

Sulfur trioxide
Aluminium carbonate

Potassium oxide
Ammonium sulphate Iron(II) oxide Lead(IV)sulphate

Memorise the Oxidation Number


H Li Na K Ag NH4

---------------+1

Al Others

------ +3 +2

Cl Br I F NO3 OH ..-1 SO4 CO3 O -2

Types of Equation
Chemical Ionic Half

Equation

Equation

Equation

MOLE CONCEPT
Calculate

oxygen.

the mass of I molecule of

mol molecule-------------- 32 g 6 x 10 23 molecule----------- 32 g 1 molecule ---------- (32/ (6 x 10 23 )g

Solubility of Salts in Water


- All nitrates soluble - All K+, Na+, NH4+ soluble - All carbonates insoluble except K, Na, NH4 - All chlorides soluble except Pb, Ag, Hg - All sulphates soluble except Pb, Ba, Ca

Series
ELECTROCHEMICAL

Topic : Electrochemistry, Oxidation and Reduction

REACTIVITY

Topic : Empirical Formulae Involving reaction with oxygen

Series

Electrochemical Series
K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb H Cu Hg Ag Au ..For all reactions excluding metal oxides

K Na Ca Mg Al C Zn H Fe Sn Pb Cu Hg Ag Au . For metal oxides only

Reactivity series

KATA TUGAS IN QUESTIONS

NAME Write the full name/ not symbol or formula


Magnesium (/) Mg (x)

state State without giving reason

What State what needed without reason

State the differences


List the differences between the two given

Explain Give the answer completely

Give reason Write the reasons why something happen

Compare and contrast List all the similarities and the differences about two given

Deduct

Give logically deduction whether from the question or knowledge

Define Give meaning precisely

CALCULATE
Show

all step by step calculations

10 TIPS
10

things to remember when answering Paper 2 and 3

TIPS 1 NAME
Full name Physical state Types of particle Not a symbol

Example: 1. Name one example of electrolyte 2. Name one oxidation agent

TIPS 2

WRITING FORMULAE
alphabet
not equation
Example : 1. Write the formula of magnesium oxide Mg2+ + O2MgO (/) MgO (x)

2. Proton number A,9 B,12. Write the chemical formula for the compound of A and B

BA2 (/)
B2+

+ 2A- BA2 (x)

TIPS 3

EQUATION
Balanced
Types

Arrow
Fraction

Multiplication
Physical state

TIPS 4 COLOUR
Example : Water : Colourless, not white

TIPS 5

TERMS
Correct Spelling Eg : Saponification Capital Letter Eg: Haber Process

Anode and cathode

DEFINITION OF ANODE AND CATHODE


ANODE Where electron donated/released

CATHODE Where electron accepted

Anode Electrolysis Chemical cell / Voltaic cell positive

Cathode negative positive

negative

TIPS 6 FIGURE
Stopcock Shade Heating Delivery tube Apparatus Clamp Functioned Label

4. Gambar rajah
a) Jika no. atom untuk X = 11 dan Y = 17, lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian XY yang terbentuk.
Skema Jawapan: Bilangan elektron pada semua petala X dan semua petala Y betul ...... 1 Label Cas X + , Y 1

0+1

4. Gambar rajah
a) Jika no. atom untuk X = 11 dan Y = 17, lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian XY yang terbentuk.
Skema Jawapan:
Bilangan elektron pada semua petala X dan semua petala Y betul ...... 1 Cas X + , Y ...... 1

1+1

ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM

Exotermic Reaction
ENergy HCl + NaOH

- X axis, not needed - Do not upside down H = -57kJmol-1

NaCl + H2O

asid sulfurik

asid sulfurik

natrium hidroksida

natrium hidroksida

susunan radas = 0 radas salah label = 0/1

susunan radas = 0 tidak lorek


label = 0/1

asid sulfurik

natrium hidroksida

natrium hidroksida

asid sulfurik

susunan radas = 0- tidak lorek

susunan radas = 1
label = 0

label = 0/1

larutan asid sulfurik

larutan natrium hidroksida

susunan radas = 1
label = 1 JAWAPAN TERBAIK

TIPS 7 OBSERVATION
What you see Hear Smell Touch

Examples of Observation
Equation Cu2+ +2e Cu Cu Cu2+ + 2e 2H+ + 2e H2 2I- I2 + 2e Fe2+ Fe3+ + e

Observation
Shiny Brown solid deposited Copper rod thinner Effervescent / Bubbles of gas Brown gas released Green solution turns brown.

TIPS 8 CHEMICAL TEST PROCEDURE


OBSERVATION

Hydrogen Test

Collect the gas in a test tube Put the burning splinter to the mouth of test tube. Pop sound heard.

Oxygen Test

Collect the gas into a test tube Put the glowing splinter into the test tube The glowing splinter burning.

Carbon dioxide Test

Flow the gas through the lime water Lime water becomes cloudy/ chalky.

3+ Fe

ion Test

Put a few drop of Sodium hydroxide solution into the test tube containing the ion. Brown precipitate is formed.

TIPS 9 CALCULATION Show every step Unit, if mentioned, must be correct Variables

TIPS 10 GRAPH
- Size of the graph: 75 % of the graph paper - Label the Axis with unit - Correct coordinates - Smooth

5. Lakarkan graf.
isipadu / cm
3

P aksi S kala T itik L icin

25
20

x
x

15

x
10 5 10 30 40 50

20

60

70

masa / s

EXAMPLES OF INCOMPLETE STATEMENT

Sodium donates electron

Each

Sodium atom donates one electron

Electron structure is stable

Electron arrangement of
atom is stable

Nuclei attraction to the outermost shell


Nuclei attraction to the electron in the outermost shell

Enough electron in the outermost shell

Attain/ achieve the stable electron arrangement

Sodium atom has 3 shells

Sodium atom has 3 shells occupied with electrons

Element size increase

Size of atom increase

Ionic compound can conduct electricity Ionic compound can conduct electricity in aqueous and molten state

Relative atomic mass of an element is how many times the atom is heavier compared to hydrogen
Relative atomic mass of an element is how many times the atom is heavier compared to a hydrogen atom.

Ionic compound forces is stronger

Attraction forces between the ions (electrostatic forces) is stronger

Hydrocarbon is a compound which consists of carbon and hydrogen

Hydrocarbon is a compound which is only consists of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Fe2+ Fe3+ Oxidation number of iron change Oxidation number of iron increase

Zinc decreases

Total surface area of Zinc decreases /

Mass of zinc decreases

Hydrochloric acid decreases

Concentration of hydrochloric acid decreases

Attraction forces in the molecule weaker Attraction forces between the molecules (intermolecular) weaker

Boiling point is the state when the solid becomes a liquid

Boiling point is the temperature when the solid becomes a liquid

Polystyrene case will prevent the leakage/loss of the heat energy Polystyrene case will reduce the loss of heat energy

Hydrochloric acid is stronger than the ethanoic acid Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid whereas ethanoic acid is a weak acid.

Polymer is a substance which consist of monomers. Polymer is a long chained compound which consists of repeatable monomers.

Weak acid is the acid which have a lower concentration of H+ ion.

Weak acid is the acid which is partially ionised in water to produce a lower concentration of H+ ion.

The colour of acidified potassium manganate (VII ) solution becomes colourless. The purple colour of acidified potassium manganate (VII ) solution becomes colourless.

Neutralisation is not a redox reaction because it is not involves the oxidation and the reduction process.

Netralisation is not a redox reaction because it is not involves the donation (releasing) and acception (receiving) of electron.

Salt is the product when acid reacts with alkali


Salt is the compound that produced when acid reacts with alkali

Electrolysis is a decomposition process of substances to their elements.

Electrolysis is a decomposition process of compounds to their elements with the presence of electricity.

Acid is a compound which decompose in water to produce hydrogen ion

Acid is a compound which discociates in water to produce hydrogen ion

Example of analgesic is panadol Example of analgesic is

paracetamol

Dry the crystal on the filter paper / under the sun

Dry the crystal by pressing it between two filter papers.

Molecular formulae is a formula which shows the real number of atom of each element in a compound. Molecular formulae is the formula which shows the real number of atom of each element in a

molecule.

Electron Arrangement of Sodium : 2:8:1

Electron arrangement of sodium atom : 2.8.1

In electrolysis, Observation: anode corrodes

In electrolysis, Observation :

anode becomes thinner

Rate or reaction is faster Rate of reaction is higher

More collision occurs.


More/higher frequency of collision between particles occur.

Factor that effect the rate of reaction; Size of Particles (x) Size of substance / total

surface area of substance (/)

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon which have double bond carbon.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon which have one or more double bond between carbon-carbon atoms.

The function of salt bridge is to complete the circuit.


The function of salt bridge is to allow the flow of ions to complete the circuit.

Catalyst is a substance which fastened the reaction. Catalyst is a substance that increase / reduce the rate of reaction.

Half equation at the anode Cu - 2e Cu2+

Half equation at the anode Cu Cu2+ + 2e

Heat of combustion is : Heat released when 1 mol of fuel/substance burnt in excess oxygen under a standard condition.

Observation when Magnesium mixed with hydrogen chloride in methyl benzene


No reaction (X) No changes (/)

Initial reading of burette : 25


3 (x) cm

25.00 cm3 (/)

Electron flows from zinc rode to copper in the solution. (x)

Electron flows from zinc to copper through the outer circuit (/)

To state the relationship between . and(paper 3)


Rate

of reaction is directly proportioned to the temperature (2 marks) Rate of reaction is affected by the temperature (1 mark) Rate of reaction higher when the temperature increase (3 marks)

HURAIAN EKSPERIMEN
RADAS / apparatus BAHAN KIMIA / chemicals KAEDAH / procedure - CARA SPESIFIK / specific method - KUANTITI SESUAI / suitable quantity - NAMA BAHAN / name of substance KEPEKATAN SESUAI /suitable concentration - RADAS / suitable apparatus - GAMBAR RAJAH berfungsi/ lablelled figure PEMERHATIAN/KEPUTUSAN/ observation PERBINCANGAN/ Explanation - PENGIRAAN/ calculation - GRAF/ graph (PSTL) - PERSAMAAN /equation KESIMPULAN/ conclusion

Contoh jawapan esei

1. Terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menukarkan ion Fe2+

kepada ion ion Fe3+ di makmal. Dalam jawapan anda sertakan juga pemerhatian , ujian pengesahan dan persamaan ion yang terlibat. [10]

- masukkan 5 cm3 1 moldm-3 ferum(II) sulfat kedalam tabung didih - Tambahkan 5 cm3 air bromin - Panaskan campuran dengan perlahan-lahan - Larutan hijau bertukar menjadi perang - Ion Fe2+ dioksidakan kepada ion Fe3+ - Tambahkan larutan natrium hidroksida - Mendakan perang terbentuk - Persamaan ion bagi tindak balas pengosidaan Fe2+ -->Fe3+ + e - Persamaan ion bagi tindak balas penurunan Br2 + 2e --> 2Br- Persamaan ion keseluruhan 2Fe2+ + Br2 --> 2Fe3+ + 2Br -

No. proton D, 6 dan no. proton E, 8. Terangkan dari segi susunan elektron bagaimana ikatan antara A dan E berlaku
Susunan elektron atom D 2.4 Susunan elektron atom E 2.6

Susunan elektron ini tidak stabil, untuk mencapai susunan elektron stabil Setiap atom D menyumbang 4 elektron untuk dikongsi Setiap atom E menyumbang 2 elektron untuk dikongsi 2 atom E dan satu atom D berkongsi 4 pasang elektron membentuk sebatian kovalen dengan formula DE2 Ikatan ini dinamakan ikatan kovalen gandadua

No. proton A, 11 dan no. proton B, 8. Terangkan dari segi susunan elektron bagaimana ikatan antara A dan B berlaku. Susunan elektron atom A 2.8.1 Susunan elektron atom B 2.6 Susunan elektron ini tidak stabil ,untuk mencapai susunan elektron stabil setiap atom A menderma satu elektron kepada atom B membentuk ion A+ Setiap atom B menerima dua elektron membentuk ion B-2 Dua ion A+ dan satu ion B-2 ditarik oleh daya elektrostatik membentuk sebatian ionik dengan dengan formula A2B

THANK YOU

EXPECTING TO SEE YOUR BIG SMILE ON MAC 2009