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Biomechanics, 2002 Spring

Chap. 8

Multiaxial Deformations
and Stress Analyses
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Stress
v
AF
AS
S
x
1

x
2

x
3

B
body force : gravitation, electromagnetic force
surface force
dS
d
S
S
v
F F
T
=
A
A
=
A
lim
0
; traction or stress
Force per unit area
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
, ,
acts force he on which t surface the to axis) - normal( :
force of components :
ly. respective , , , axes coord the of direction the along are , ,
be on acting vector stress Let the
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
i
k k k
k
k
x k
i
x x x
S
t t t = = =
A
T T T
T
T T T
T
NOTATIONS FOR STRESS COMPONENTS
Components of stress
1 2 3
Surface normal to x
1
Surface normal to x
2
Surface normal to x
3

11
t
12
t
13
t
21
t
22
t
23
t
31
t
32
t
33
t
11
t
12
t
13
t
21
t
22
t
23
t 31
t
32
t
33
t
x
1

x
2

x
3

Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
NOTATIONS FOR STRESS COMPONENTS
11
t
12
t
13
t
21
t
22
t
23
t 31
t
32
t
33
t
x
1

x
2

x
3

or
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
o o o
o o o
o o o
o t t
t o t
t t o
11
t
12
t
13
t
21
t
22
t
23
t 31
t
32
t
33
t
x
1

x
2

x
3

Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
The strain is directly proportional to the stress !
i.e.
x
y
z
x
o
Uniaxial normal stress
E
x
x
o
c =
l A
A A
P
o
A
o
l
During the tensile test, the lateral compressive strain is found !
But,
strain al Longitudin
strain Lateral
ratio Poisson's


) ( u
For a linear-elastic material,
E
x
x z y
o
u uc c c = = =
8.1 Poissons Ratio (Elastic Stress-Strain Relations)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Elastic Shear Stress - Shear Strain Relations
Shear stress component only produces its corresponding
shear-strain component.
zx
t
zx
t
x
y
z
For a linear-elastic material, the shear strain is directly
proportional to the shear stress !
i.e.
G G G
yz
yz
xy
xy
zx
zx
t

t
= = = , ,
8.1 Poissons Ratio (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Stress-Strain Relations in Linear-elastic isotropic material
| |
| |
| |
G
G
G
E
E
E
yz
yz
xy
xy
zx
zx
y x z z
x z y y
z y x x
t

o o u o c
o o u o c
o o u o c
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
; Generalized Hookes Law
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
For a material with the unit thickness,
Moment equilibrium about O:
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses
( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( =
yx xy
a b b a t t

yx
t
t
xy

t
xy


yx
t
a
b
x
y
O
xy yx
t t =
Thus,
zx xz
yz zy
t t
t t
=
= similarly,
ji ij
t t =
or
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
1
1
11
11
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
2
2
21
21
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
2
2
22
22
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
x
3

x
1

x
2

22
t
21
t
11
t
12
t
32
t
31
t
1
1
12
12
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
3
3
31
31
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
3
3
31
31
dx
x c
c
+
t
t
X
1

X
2

Moment equilibrium for x
3
-axis
0
2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2


2 2
1
3 2 1 2
2
3 2 1 1
2
2 1 31
2
2 1 3
3
31
31
1
2 1 32
1
2 1 3
3
32
32
1
3 1 22
1
3 1 2
2
22
22
2 3 1 2
2
21
21 1 3 2 1
1
12
12
2
3 2 11
2
3 2 1
1
11
11
= +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ +

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
dx
dx dx dx
dx
dx dx dx
dx
dx dx
dx
dx dx dx
x
dx
dx dx
dx
dx dx dx
x
dx
dx dx
dx
dx dx dx
x
dx dx dx dx
x
dx dx dx dx
x
dx
dx dx
dx
dx dx dx
x
X X
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
0 , 0 , 0 as and by Dividing
3 2 1 3 2 1
dx dx dx dx dx dx
ji ij
t t t t or
21 12
= =
If there is no external moment, the stress tensor is symmetric.
Symmetric tensor
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
PLANE STATE OF STRESS
Thin membrane

o
x
o
x

o
y

o
y

t
xy

t
xy

2h
y
z = - h
z = h
z
Free on z = h, z = - h
o o o
zz zx zy
= = = 0
Since the membrane is thin enough
Plane State of Stress
=
o t
t o
x xy
xy y
0
0
0 0 0
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
o
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Stress-Strain Relations in Linear-Elastic Isotropic Material
( ) ( )
E E E E
) 1 ( 1
,
) 1 ( 1
1 2 2 2 1 1
u t
uo o c
u t
uo o c
+
= =
+
= =
t
x
y
x
y
1
2
45
o

t t
1
2
x
y
) 1 ( 2

) 1 ( 2
2 1
u
t
u
c c
t

+
=
+
= = =
E
G
E G
yz
For the principal directions (1, 2), t o t o = =
2 1
,
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Thermal strain
0 = = =
t
zx
t
yz
t
xy

: The strain due to the temperature in the absence of stress
t
c
For an isotropic material, the thermal strain must be pure expansion or contraction
with no shear-strain components due to the symmetry.

The thermal strains are not exactly linear with temperature change, but for
temperature changes of 100-200
o
F is approximately linear.
) (
o
t
z
t
y
t
x
T T = = = o c c c
expansion of t coefficien : where o
t e
c c c + = : strain Total
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
COMPLETE EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY
(LINEAR ELASTIC THEORY)
0
0
0
= +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
Z
z y x
Y
z y x
X
z y x
z
yz
zx
yz y xy
zx
xy
x
o
t
t
t o t
t
t
o
1. Equilibrium
2. Geometric compatibility
x
w
z
u
z
w
z
v
y
w
y
v
y
u
x
v
x
u
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
=



zx
yz
xy
c
c
c
| |
| |
| |
G
G
G
T T
E
T T
E
T T
E
yz
yz
xy
xy
zx
zx
o y x z z
o x z y y
o z y x x
t

o o o u o c
o o o u o c
o o o u o c
=
=
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
1
3. Stress-Strain Relations
Unknowns :
Equations :
equations 15
unknowns 15 ) 3 ( ), 6 ( ), 6 (
i ij ij
u c o
Integration is required to solve. Boundary condition
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Example 8.1
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
x
A
x

y
z
a
a
a
A
y

a=10cm, F
x
= F
y
=F=2 10
6
N, E=200GPa, v=0.3
A
x
= A
y
=A=100cm
2
Pa 10 2
m 10 1
N 10 2
8
2 2
6
=

= = = =

A
F
y x
o o o
Case (a):
F
y
F
y
F
x
F
x
3
3
3
10 6 . 0
2
) (
10 7 . 0
1
) (
1
10 7 . 0
1
) (
1

= = + =
=

= =
=

= =
o
u
o o
u
c
o
u
uo o c
o
u
uo o c
E E
E E
E E
y x z
x y y
y x x
Case (b):
F
y
F
y
F
x
F
x
0 ) (
10 3 . 1
1
) (
1
10 3 . 1
1
) (
1
3
3
= =
=
+
= =
=
+
= + =

y x z
x y y
y x x
E
E E
E E
o o
u
c
o
u
uo o c
o
u
uo o c
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Example 8.1 (continued)
8.2 Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses (continued)
x
A
x

y
z
a
a
a
A
y

a=10cm, F
x
= F
y
=F=2 10
6
N, E=200GPa, v=0.3
A
x
= A
y
=A=100cm
2
Pa 10 2
m 10 1
N 10 2
8
2 2
6
=

= = = =

A
F
y x
o o o
Case (c):
F
y
F
y
F
x
F
x
3
3
3
10 6 . 0
2
) (
10 7 . 0
1
) (
1
10 7 . 0
1
) (
1

= = =
=

= + =
=

= + =
o
u
o o
u
c
o
u
uo o c
o
u
uo o c
E E
E E
E E
y x z
x y y
y x x
Deformed dimension in Case (a) and Case (c) are in the same manner!!
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Given stresses

t
33
t
22
t
11
x
2
x
3
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
1
x
2
'
x
3
'
x
1
'
t
33
'
t
22
'
t
11
'
Desired stresses

x x k= , ,
k ki i
'
, = | ( ) 12 3
Transformation of stress components under rotation of coordinate systems
8.3 Stress Transformation
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
TRANSLATION AND ROTATION OF COORDINATES
Translation
x
y
x
y
h
k
O
O
P
x = x + h
y = y + k
x = x - h
y = y - k
or
P
u
A B
C
D
x
x
y
y
u
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
y x y
y x x
' + ' =
' ' =
or
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
y x y
y x x
+ = '
+ = '
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
TRANSLATION AND ROTATION OF COORDINATES
x x
j ij i

'
= ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
22 21
12 11

ij
Inverse transform
x x
j ji i
'
=
where
T
ij ji
) ( ) ( = : transpose
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Rotation of coordinates from xy to xy
x x k= , ,
k ki i
'
, = | ( ) 12 3
( )
|
| | |
| | |
| | |
u u
u u
ij
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
0
0
0 0 1
cos sin
sin cos
u
x
y
x
'
y
'
z
u
z
'
t
y x
' '
t
x y
' '
o
x
'
o
y
'
O
x
'
y
'
y
x
t t |
km ji kj mi
x k= , ,
'
, = ( ) 12 3
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
O
x
y
z
x
y
u
u
o
x
t
xy
F
n
F
3
F
2
F
1
F
4
Thin body subjected to plane stress in the xy plane
Q. Does equilibrium uniquely determine the stress components, o
x
., o
y
t
xy
in
terms of o
x
, o
y
t
xy
and u?
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Stress components acting on faces of a small wedge
x
y
z
x
y
xy
t
y
o
' x
o
' ' y x
t
x
o
xy
t
u
u
z A
P
N
M
O
0 cos ) ( sin ) ( -
sin ) ( cos ) (
' '
= A A
A A A =

u t u o
u t u o o
NP z NP z
MP z MP z MN z F
xy y
xy x x x
0 sin ) ( cos ) ( -
cos ) ( sin ) (
' ' '
= A A
A A A =

u t u o
u t u o t
NP z NP z
MP z MP z MN z F
xy y
xy x y x y
Force equilibrium in xy direction
) sin (cos cos sin ) (
cos sin 2 sin cos
2 2
' '
2 2
'
u u t u u o o t
u u t u o u o o
+ =
+ + =
xy x y y x
xy y x x
u u t u o u o o cos sin 2 cos sin
2 2
' xy y x y
+ =
Substituting u u of instead 90
o
+
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
x
o
y x ' '
t
x
y x ' '
t
y x ' '
t
y x ' '
t
y'
x'
y
u
u
y'
o
y'
o
x'
o
x'
o
xy
t
y
x
xy
t
xy
t
xy
t
x
o
y
o
y
o
P
o
o o o o
u t u
x
x y x y
xy
'
cos sin =
+
+

+
2 2
2 2
o
o o o o
u t u
y
x y x y
xy
'
cos sin =
+

2 2
2 2
t
o o
u t u
x y
x y
xy
' '
sin cos =

+
2
2 2
8.3 Stress Transformation (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
From the above equations
o o o o
co
cu
t
co
cu
t
t u
t
o o
x y x y
x
x y
y
x y
x y
xy
x y
' '
'
'
,
,
tan
' ' ' '
' '
+ = +
= =
= =

2 2
0 2
2

when
x, y : principal directions, principal axes
o o
x y
' '
,
: principal stresses
o
o
o o o o
t
max
min
=
+


|
\

|
.
| +
x y x y
xy
2 2
2
2
t
o o
o o
t
max
max min
=

=

|
\

|
.
| +
2 2
2
2
x y
xy
c
cu
t ( )
' '
x y
= 0
To find the max shear w. r. t. u,
when u=45
o

: the max shear stress on all planes parallel to z-axis
Principal stresses
8.4 Principal Stresses
Principal stress, stress invariants, stress deviations and the max shear are directly
related to the failure strength of materials.
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
x
o
xy
t
y
x
xy
t
xy
t
xy
t
x
o
y
o
y
o
P
x
max
t
y'
x'
y
2
u
2
u
y'
o
y'
o
x'
o
x'
o
max
t
max
t
max
t
1
o
x
1
o
2
o
2
o
P
1
u
1
u
2
2
2
1
2 2
xy
y x y x
t
o o o o
o
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
y x
xy
o o
t
u

=
2
2 tan
1
t
o o
o o
t
max
max min
=

=

|
\

|
.
| +
2 2
2
2
x y
xy
xy
x y
t
o o
u
2
2 tan
2

=
y x ' '
= o o
8.4 Principal Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
=
o o o
o o o
o o o
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
o
o o
ij ji
=
,
9 components of stress
6 components are independent. i.e. the stress matrix is symmetric.
=
o o o
o o o
o o o
11 12 13
12 22 23
13 23 33
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
o
A symmetric matrix can be reduced to a diagonal matrix.
=
o
o
o
1
2
3
0 0
0 0
0 0
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
o
1, 2, 3 : principal axes or principal directions
o
1
, o
2
, o
3
: principal stresses
- Normal stresses acted on principal planes
- No shear components )
8.4 Principal Stresses (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
MOHRS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRESS (1)
o
x
o
y
t
xy
x
y
u
o
t
x
y
u
v
o
x
o
y
t
xy
t
xy
P
A
B
t
max
o
max
o
min
Q
o axis
t axis
2u
2o
How the stress varies at a point for plane stress?
8.5 Mohrs Circle
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
MOHRS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRESS (2)
o
x
o
y
t
xy
t
xy
P
A
B
t
max
o
max
o
min
Q
o axis
t axis
2u
2o
) , (
' ' '
y x x
t o
C
O
2
2
2
2
xy
y x
y x
CP AC
OC
t
o o
o o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+
=
From the figure, ) 2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 (cos ) 2 2 cos(
'
o u o u o u o + + = + = CP OC CP OC
x
o
CP CP
xy y x
2
2 cos ,
2
2 cos
t
u
o o
o =

=
u t u
o o o o
o 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
'
xy
y x y x
x
+

+
+
=
u t u
o o
o u o u o u t
2 cos 2 sin
2

) 2 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 (sin ) 2 2 sin(
' '
xy
y x
y x
CP CP

=
= =
Similarly
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
MOHRS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRESS (3)
o
x
o
y
t
xy
t
xy
P
A
B
t
max
o
max
o
min
Q
o axis
t axis
2u
2o
) , (
' ' '
y x x
t o
C
O
u t u
o o o o
o 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
'
xy
y x y x
x
+

+
+
=
u t u
o o
t 2 cos 2 sin
2
' '
xy
y x
y x

=
Pure shear
max
o o =
x
min
o o =
y
O
o
t
t
max
y x
o o =
Hydrostatic stress
O
o
t
0 , = =
xy y x
t o o
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Procedure to Draw Mohrs Circle (1)
xy
t
y
o
x
o
o
t
x
y
y
o 2
1. With the sign convention, locate x using o
x
and

t
xy
,
and the point y using o
y
and

t
xy
.

2. Join x and y to get the center of Mohrs circle.
The abscissa of C is



3. With C as center and xy as diameter, draw the
circle. The radius of the circle is





2
y x
c
o o +
=
2
2
2
xy
y x
r t
o o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
xy
t
c
x
o
C O
y
o
xy
t
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
x
u
x


y
'
y
o
' '
x y
t '
x
o
u
u 2
o
t
a
o
b
o
ab
t
ab
t
x
y a
b
4. Locate the x

diameter w.r.t. the xy diameter in


Mohrs circle laying off the angle 2u.

5. Find the








6. Realign the element with normal stresses
and shear stress in rotated coordinates x

.
. and , ,
' ' ' '
y x y x
t o o
' '
,
y x
o o
' '
y x
t
o
o o o o
u t u
x
x y x y
xy
'
cos sin =
+
+

+
2 2
2 2
o
o o o o
u t u
y
x y x y
xy
'
cos sin =
+

2 2
2 2
t
o o
u t u
x y
x y
xy
' '
sin cos =

+
2
2 2
Procedure to Draw Mohrs Circle (2)
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
PROBLEM
2
MN/m 40 =
xy
t
2
2
2
MN/m 30 ) 2 . 53 90 sin( 50
MN/m 40 ) 2 . 53 90 cos( 50 80
MN/m 120 ) 2 . 53 90 cos( 50 80
= =
= =
= + =
o o
ab
o o
b
o o
a
t
o
o
2
MN/m 50 =
y
o
o
45 = u
2
MN/m 110 =
x
o
o
t
110
80 30
50
40
a
o
b
o
ab
t
ab
t
40
x
y a
b
a
b
x
y
x
o
45
a b
y
2
MN/m 120
2
MN/m 40
2
MN/m 30
u 2
o 2
50 40 30
2 . 53
30
40
tan 2
2 2
1
= + =
= =

r
o
o
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Example 8.2: Axial loading
A F
x
/ = o
A
Mohrs circle
F
B
0 =
y
o
F
0 , 0 , / = = =
xy y x
A F t o o
o
t
max
t
2
2u
x
o
y
o
A B
x
o
45
y
2
max
x
o
t =
2
'
x
x
o
o =
x
y
2
'
x
y
o
o =
A
F
x
2 2
max
= =
o
t
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Example 8.3:
y
x
o
A
B
0 =
y
o
x
y
E
Mohrs circle
o
t
1
2u
x
o
A
xy
t
B
C
D
max
t
1
o
2
o
xy
t
G
F
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
+ =
+ |
.
|

\
|
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
xy o
x
xy o
x
x
xy
x
xy
y x
x
r
r
o
t
u
o
t
u
o
o
o
o
t
o
t
o o
o
2
tan 180 2
2 /
2 tan 180
2
2
2 2
r
2
: C Center
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
x
o

x
1
o
1
o
2
o
2
o
1
u
D
E
1
2
8.5 Mohrs Circle (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
The Tensile Test
0.002 0
: yield strength

Y
o
E
1

Y
o
E : Youngs modulus
or elastic modulus
o
c
8.6 Failure Theories
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
No theoretical method to determine yielding criteria !

Empirical Method :
The magnitude of the differences between the principal stresses
Yielding can occur in a 3-D state of stress, when the rms value of differences
between the principal stresses reaches to the same value in pure tensile test
yielding:
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) | | Y
Y Y Y
= + +
= + + = + +
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2 2 2 2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
1
or
3
2
0 0 0 0
3
1
3
1
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
1. Mises yield Criteria :
( ) ( ) ( ) { } Y
zx yz xy x z z y y x
= + + + + + ) ( 3
2
1

2 2 2 2 2 2
t t t o o o o o o
In general,
0 ,
3 2 1
= = = o o o Y
Yielding Criteria
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
0 0
2
1
o o o o o o o o + = + + = Y
1. Mises yield Criteria (2-D):
0
3
= o
Yielding Criteria
Yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress reaches the value in pure
tensile test yielding:
2. Maximum shear-stress Criteria :

2 2
min max
max
Y
=

=
o o
t
0 ,
3 2 1
= = = o o o Y
o
t
Y =
1
o
0
2
max
Y
= t
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.7 Allowable Stress and Factor of Safety
A structure must withstand the maximum possible stress level, working stress.
Uncertainties:
Unexpected high loads
Dynamic loading conditions
Corrosive environment
Allowable stress
Safety factor, n
n
u
all
o
o =
u
all
o
o
: allowable stress
: ultimate stress
8.8 Factors Affecting Strength of Materials
Temperature
Friction
Wear
Corrosion
Discontinuities in a material
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.9 Fatigue and Endurance
Loading and unloading
Fatigue:
Fracture due to a repeated loading
Fatigue testing
Fatigue strength
Endurance limit
Brittle fracture: sudden fracture without plastic deformation
Ductile fracture: with yielding (elastic and plastic deformation) yielding
c
o
1
2
Material 1 is more ductile and
less brittle than material 2.
Sudden rupture w/o
considerable plastic deformation
e
o
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.10 Stress Concentration
Presence of holes, cracks, fillets, scratches, notches, or force exerted on a very small area
F
F
A
F
= o
F
F
F
b d
c
c a
a
A
F
= o
F
max
o
max
o
Stress concentration:
o o k =
max
o
k : concentration factor
: average stress
Uniform stress distribution
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.11 Torsion
A circular shaft in torsion : twisting action
Torsion formula:

'
B'
B
A
O
o
r
M

B'
B
o
r
r
u
O
M
u : angle of twist

' BB
=
u
o o
r r
BB
= =
'
B'
B
O
J
Mr
= t
M
J
Mr
= t
J : Polar moment of inertia
J
Mr
o
=
max
t
o
r
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.11 Torsion (continued)
Polar moment of inertia, J
for a linearly elastic material,
u angle of twist
GJ
M
= u
GJ
Mr
G
=
=

t
o
r
i
r
2
4
o
r
J
t
=
o
r
Solid shaft Hollow shaft
( )
2
4 4
i o
r r
J

=
t
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.11 Torsion (continued)
Example 8.4
Assuming a linearly elastic material, rigidity modulus is
GPa 6 . 4 Pa 10 6 . 4
0123 . 0
10 9 . 56
9
6
= =

= =

t
G
( ) ( )
4 9
4 4 4 4
m 10 1 . 41
2
) 007 . 0 ( ) 013 . 0 (
2

=
t t
i o
r r
J
MPa 9 . 56 Pa 10 9 . 56
10 1 . 41
) 013 . 0 )( 180 (
6
9
= =

= =

J
Mr
o
t
rad 0123 . 0 ) 236 . 0 (
25 . 0
013 . 0
= = = =

t
u
aa
o
r

Angle of twist:
mm 7 mm, 13
cm, 25 cm, 37
= =
= =
o o
r r
L
Angular deformation at the fracture site:
/cm 54 . 0
37
20 20
o
o o
L
= =
d
o o
ra 236 . 0 5 . 13 /cm)(25cm) 54 . 0 ( = =
Angular deformation per unit cm:
Polar moment of inertia:
Torsional stress:
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.11 Torsion (continued)
Example 8.6: Bar in torsion
M
A
B
Mohrs circle
o
t
xy
t t =
max
o
90 2
1
= u
1
o
2
o
A
E
xy
t
B
D C
x
y
x
y
xy
t o =
2
xy
t o =
1
o
45
1
= u
1
2
M
M
1
o
2
o
1
o
2
o
b
b
c
c
Stress trajectories
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.12 Bending
Beam: Relatively thin and narrow
Moment and axial, transverse loading (concentrated or distributed)
F
F
1
R
2
R
1
F
1
R
2
R
2
F
Three-point bending Four-point bending
Bending of a simple supported beam
Fixed (cantilever beam)
F
N
N
Simply supported Roller or pin Free
No axial loading
No moment
No moment
V
M
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
F
1

x
y
F
1
x
x
a
b
a
b
A
R
B
R
A B
A
R F
V
A
R
M
V
M

+
A
R
B
R
+
V
M
0
0
x
x
x
F R F R F R M
F R R F
A B B A
B A y
|
.
|

\
|
= = = =
= + =


1 1
1
1 , 0 : 0
0 : 0
1. Static equilibrium to determine reaction forces
Fx xR M xR M M
F R V V R F
A A x
A A y
|
.
|

\
|
= = = =
|
.
|

\
|
= = = + =

1
1
1 0 : 0
1 0 : 0
1
0 i) s s x
Fx F M xR F x M M
F R F V V F R F
A x
A A y

1
1 1
1
0 ) ( : 0
0 : 0
= = + =
= = = + =

s s x
1
ii)
2. Shear force and bending moment:
Simply supported beam
8.12 Bending (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
w

x
y
x
a
a
A
R
B
R
A B
A
R
V
M

+
A
R
B
R
+
V
M
0
0
x
x
x
2
0
2
: 0
0 : 0

w
R R w R M
w R R F
B A A B
B A y
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + =

1. Static equilibrium to determine reaction forces


8
2 2
0
2
: 0
2
0 : 0
2
2 /
max
2 2

w
M M
wx
x
w
M
wx
xR M M
w
wx V wx V R F
x
A x
A y
= =
= = + =
= = + =
=

2. Shear force and bending moment:


Uniformly distributed beam
8
2
w
8.12 Bending (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
w

x
y
x
a
a
A
R
A
B
A
R
V
M

A
R
V
M
0
0
x
x
x
F M F M M
F R F R F
A A A
A A y
= = =
= = =

0 : 0
0 : 0
1. Static equilibrium to determine reaction forces

F M M M
x F M xR M M M
F R V V R F
A
x
A A x
A A y
= = =
= = + =
= = = + =
=

0
max
) ( 0 : 0
0 : 0
2. Shear force and bending moment:
Cantilever beam with concentrated loading
A
M
8.12 Bending (continued)
A
M
A
M
B

F
F
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
w

x
y
x
a
a
A
R
A
B
A
R
V
M

A
R
V
M
0
0
x
x
x
2
0
2
: 0
0 : 0
2


w
M w M M
w R w R F
A A A
A A y
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =

1. Static equilibrium to determine reaction forces


2
) (
2
0
2
: 0
) ( 0 : 0
2
0
max
2
2

w
M M M
x
w
M
wx
xR M M M
x w V wx V R F
A
x
A A x
A y
= = =
= = + + =
= = + =
=

2. Shear force and bending moment:


Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed loading
A
M
8.12 Bending (continued)
A
M
A
M
B

Biomechanics, 2002 Spring


dV V +
dM M +
) (x w
V
dx
dM
dx
dx x w Vdx dM M M R M
x w
dx
dV
dx x w dV V V F
A B
y
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
=
= + + =


0
2
) ( ) ( : 0
) (
0 ) ( ) ( : 0

Static equilibrium
For distributed loading
V
M
dx
x
y
) (
2
2
x w
dx
M d
=
8.12 Bending (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
Force equilibrium
bending moment
y
*
y
*
y
c
Neutral axis
*
ky
xx
= t
G
z
x
0
*
= =
} }
A A
xx
dA y k dA t Neutral axis passes through the center of the section!!
Moment equilibrium
( ) 0
*
= +
}
A
xx
dA y M t
dA
( )
' *
kI dA y M
A
xx
= =
}
t
}
=
A
dA y I
2
* '
: Area of moment of inertia
'
*
I
My
xx
= t
( ) ( )
max max
,
'
*
xx
y c
I
Mc
= = t
8.12 Bending (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
s A
M
M
x A
A
B
C D
u A
compression
tension
b
h
o
r
i
r
o
r
NA
NA
NA
12
3
bh
I
bh A
=
=
4
4
2
o
o
r
I
r A
t
t
=
=
( )
( )
4
4 4
2 2
i o
i o
r r
I
r r A

=
=
t
t
A
V
I
Mh
bh
Q
2
3
2
8
max
max
2
=
=
=
t
o
A
V
I
Mr
r
Q
o
o
3
4
3
2
max
max
2
=
=
=
t
o
A
V
I
Mr
r r r Q
o
i o o
2
) (
max
max
2 2
=
=
+ =
t
o
8.12 Bending (continued)
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring

= = = = =
= = = + =
m - 80N ) (0.16)(500 , 0 : 0
500N , 0 : 0
hf M M-hF M
F V F V F
a
8.12 Bending (continued)
Example 8.8: bending of a bone in a bench test
( )
( )
3 6 2 2
4 8
4 4
2 4 2 2
m 10 67 . 2 ) (
m 10 14 . 2
4
m 10 18 . 4

= + =
=

=
= =
i o o
i o
i o
r r r Q
r r
I
r r A
t
t
MPa 4 . 2
) 10 18 . 4 ( 2
) 500 ( 3
2
3
MPa 6 . 48
10 14 . 2
) 013 . 0 )( 80 (
4
max
8
max
=

= =
=

= =

A
V
I
Mr
o
t
o
Equilibrium equations
To determine A, I, Q,
Maximum normal and shear stresses:
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.13 Combined Loading
Axial loading:

Pure shear loading

Torsional loading

Flexural loading
I
y M
J
r M
A
F
A
F
b
b
t
r
s
s
s
a
a
a
=
=
=
=
o
t
o
o
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.13 Combined Loading (continued)
Example 8.9: A bench test intertrochantric nail
Force and moment equilibrium
m - N 60 ) 1000 )( 06 . 0 ( = = = dF M
Cross-sectional area:
2 4 2 2
m 10 25 . 2 ) 015 . 0 (

= = = a A
d
b b
F
b b
d
M
M
L
a
a
F
F
Compressive stress at bb:
MPa 4 . 4
10 25 . 2
1000
4
=

= =

A
F
a
o
Bending stress:
MPa 1 . 107
10 2 . 4
) 2 / 015 . 0 )( 60 ( ) 2 / (
m 10 2 . 4
12
) 015 . 0 (
12
9
4 9
4 4
max
=

= = =
= = =

I
a M
I
y M
a
I
b
b
o
Biomechanics, 2002 Spring
8.13 Combined Loading (continued)
Example 8.9: A bench test intertrochantric nail (continued)
Superposition:
d
b b
F
b b
d
M
M
L
a
a
F
F
MPa 7 . 102
MPa 5 . 111
L
max
= =
= + =
a b
b a
o o o
o o o
a
o
a
o
M L
M L
b
o
b
o
+
=
M L
a b
o o
b a
o o +