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Midterm Period

Overview Java Overview PERL Overview ML Overview

is a language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson of AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories. It is related to ALGOL and Pascal in style, with attributes of PL/I thrown in. A general-purpose programming language but became popular as systems programming language. It was first used to write the kernel of the UNIX operating system.


C language which is relatively small with a limited number of control structures and features. The C preprocessor which includes the # preprocessor statements. The C interface assumptions.

ex: #include myfcn.h


C library includes many functions such as printf, getchar, malloc, fork and exec

C module consists of global declarations and a sequence of functions. C has pointers and there is an equivalence between arrays and pointers. C has a large set of arithmetic operators. C has a flexible type definition facility. C has always been closely tied to operating system functionality. The C compiler executes by invoking the preprocessor first. Comments may appear wherever a blank is used in the program.


development began in 1991 at Sun Microsystems, where James Gosling led the Green Team in a project to develop a language for use on consumer digital devices. In 1993, the Mosaic Web Browser was released, leading the way to the usage of Java applets (small application program) with the following requirements: Architectural independence and Security. In 1994, Sun developed the HotJava browser that contained the Java virtual machine.


is a smaller language than C++; it has the clean design of C++ without some clumsiness of C Pointers are implicit in the language through the use of the new operator. To create a Java program, a file is created. The name of the file should be the same as the class created by the Java program. A Java compiler is called and a file of bytecodes is produced as name.class. This file may be executed by the Java interpreter (Java virtual machine).


Extraction and Report Language was developed by Larry Wall in 1986 in response to need for a configuration management system to control several computers on a network. The growth of WWW has led to Perl being a language well suited for Web interaction to process information that is entered on a Web page.


is an interpreted language designed for efficient text-processing applications. It has syntax patterned after C and was originally designed to operate as a shell script on UNIX. Variables in Perl are either integers or strings and begin with the symbol $. Associative arrays are also called Content Addressable Arrays

ex: print The user of this program is: $ENV{USER}\n;


(MetaLanguage) is an applicative language with programs written in the style of C or Pascal. ML supports polymorphism and supports data abstractions. ML was developed by Robin Milner, along with others, as mechanism for machineassisted formal proofs in the Edinburgh Logic for Computable Functions system developed in the mid-1970s.


is a language with static types, strong typing, and applicative execution of programs, however, that types need not be specified by the programmer. ML program consists of several function definitions. Each function is statically typed and may return values of any type. Storage is handled differently, there is only a limited form of assignment. Comments in ML use the notation (**)


Data Types Properties of Types and Objects

Data Objects, Variables, and Constants Data Types Declarations Type Checking and type Conversion


Scalar Data Types

Numeric Data Types Enumerations Booleans Characters


Composite Data Types

Character Strings Pointers and Programmer-Constructed Data Objects Files and Input-Output


FORTRAN Overview