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Chapter 3

Learning and Memory

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e
Michael R. Solomon

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What is Theory
A theory has been defined as a set of related principles explaining the cause-and-effect relationships among events.
(Newby, p. 28)

Theories are net to catch what we call the world: to rationalise,


explain and master it. (Popper 1959: 2002, pp.37) Abstract: If it is applicable to a variety of different situation or phenomena, rather than only a single event or occurrence.

Explanatory A theory must explain why? And even predict Testable: Should be empirically testable by collecting and analyzing
relevant data.

Example: Cognitive Dissonance

(White 2009)
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Theory Testing and Theory Generation


Theories can be related to research questions in two
main ways: Theory Testing They can be tested, with research questions relating to their ability to help us understand a particular aspect of the social world. Theory Generation Gaps in existing theories can be identified and research can aim to generate theory in order to make up for this absence

(White 2009)
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Importance

Your Research must be linked to some theory

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Where can we find Theories?


http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/a_alphabetic.htm Management Models/Theories http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/

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Critical Question

Are you a
consumer?

If yes list names of


some products and services?

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Critical Question
Do You think you have learned about the products and
services you have prepared a list of?

How you have learned about these products and services?

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Critical Question

Is it important for marketers to understand


how consumers learn about products and services?

Marketers realize that long-standing, learned


connections between products and memories are a potent way to build and keep brand loyalty.

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Critical Question

What Marketers measure to understand our


learning about products, services and ads? Our Memories

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Brands in Our mind is what we learned

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Decision Alternatives and in which set your brand you like to be placed?

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Learning Results from Information Processing and Causes Changes in Memory

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Learning

Learning rrefers to any change in the content or organisation of long-term memory (Neal 2005)

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Learning

Learning has been defined as a change in human performance or performance potential.


(Newby, T. J., D.A. Stepich, J.D. Lehman, and J.D. Russell. 1996). Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning. New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice-Hall, p. 28).

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Figure 7.7 The Atkinson and Schiffrin model of memory storage


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The Learning Process

Learning: a relatively
permanent change in behavior caused by experience

Incidental learning: casual,


unintentional acquisition of knowledge

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Learning Theories in High- and LowInvolvement Situations

Pavlovs Procedure

Thorndikes
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Behavioral Learning Theories

Behavioral learning theories: assume that


learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.

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Pavlovs Dog

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From W. Huitt and J. Hummel http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/edpsyint.html

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Consumer Group
Think of some examples of classical conditioning in
everyday life as well as in advertising and marketing. Do you think such examples represent intentional efforts to condition consumers. What are the strengths of these campaigns, if any? Be sure to point out the difference between true conditioning and mere association.

Can automatically using credit card for purchases be


taken as an example of classical conditioning?

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Marketing Applications of Repetition

Repetition increases learning More exposures = increased brand


awareness

When exposure decreases, extinction occurs However, too MUCH exposure leads to
advertising wear out

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Marketing Applications of Stimulus Generalization (

critical to branding and packaging decisions

Stimulus generalization: tendency for stimuli similar to a


conditioned stimulus to evoke similar, unconditioned responses. Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging

Stimulus Discrimination:
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Behavior Group
Can you think of some products that have similar
packaging? Similar shapes? Similar names? To what extent do these examples represent stimulus generalization? In each case, which brand is the primary brand and which brand is the me too brand? Assuming the strategy was intentional, did it work? How can a marketer achieve stimulus discrimination?

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Example of Stimulus Generalisation to Launch a New Product

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Skinner Box Classical Conditioning


.

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Instrumental Conditioning
Behaviors = positive outcomes or negative
outcomes

Instrumental conditions occurs in one of these ways: Positive reinforcement (A woman wearing perfume and receiving a

) Negative reinforcement (A woman setting alone at home coz she is not wearing certain perfume) Punishment ( A woman being ridiculed for not wearing the wrong perfume) Extinction
compliment

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Figure 3.2 Instrumental Conditioning

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Reinforcement Schedules in Instrumental Conditioning

Fixed-interval (seasonal sales) Variable-interval (secret shoppers) Fixed-ratio (grocery-shopping receipt


programs)

Variable-ratio (slot machines)

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Group Activity
Perception Group Relate the concept of instrumental conditioning to the Internet
and eCommerce through a specific example. Have students point out why they think this example is an application of instrumental conditioning

Learning Group What are some products that promise good things will
happen if you buy their products? Can you think of products that tell you that you will be punished if you dont buy them? Can you think of products where you are told that you will be punished if you do buy them or use them? How would this be possible?

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Operant Conditioning

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The Process of Shaping in Purchase Behaviour

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Observational Learning
Occurs when changes in the
observers behavior take place after watching the behavior of others Imitation An observer matches the behavior of the person being observed

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Cognitive Learning Theories: Observational Learning

We watch others; we model behavior Conditions for modeling to occur: The consumers attention must be directed

to the appropriate model The consumer must remember what the model does and says The consumer must convert information to action The consumer must be motivated to perform actions
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Figure 3.3 The Observational Learning Process

Modeling: imitating others behavior

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Group Response
Reference Group How have marketers applied the concept of observational
learning to facilitate consumer learning on the Internet? To facilitate consumer learning of software programs through animated tutorials?

Cultural Group Come up with examples of celebrity endorsers. Then


analyze each endorser according to the principle of observational learning. Think of some models that companies probably wont hire again. Why is it, in some cases, that a company can use a somewhat negative model (like basketball player Allen Iverson) and still have success.

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Iconic Rote Learning

(Clip)

Associating the new concept of Panadol with existing concept of headache remedy
(unconditional stimulus and reward is not involved)

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Iconic Rote Learning


Association between two or more concepts in
the absence of conditioning a substantial amount of low-involvement learning involves iconic rote learning achieved by repeated advertising messages

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Reasoning Learning
Reasoning most complex form of cognitive learning most high-involvement decisions generate
some reasoning, such as buying a car or house, or menu for dinner guests

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An Advertisement Using Reasoning

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Role of Memory in Learning

Memory: acquiring information and storing it


over time so that it will be available when needed.

Information-processing approach; Figure 3.4 Mind = computer and data = input/output

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How Information Gets Encoded

Encode: mentally program meaning Types of meaning: Sensory meaning, such as the literal color

or shape of a package Semantic meaning: symbolic associations

Episodic memories: relate to events that are


personally relevant

Narrative: memories store information we


acquire in story form
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Figure 3.5 The Memory Process

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Social Group
Give an illustration of each of the forms of meaning
or memory just discussed (sensory meaning, semantic meaning, episodic memory, and flashbulb memories)? How these forms of memory could be used to motivate purchases.

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Figure 3.6 An Associative Networks for Perfumes

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MBA Professional Group

Construct an example of an associative network for


a product or brand of your choosing. Illustrate the network for the class to see as it is being constructed.

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Spreading Activation

As one node is activated, other nodes


associated with it also begin to be triggered

Meaning types of associated nodes: Brand-specific Ad-specific Brand identification Product category Evaluative reactions
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Levels of Knowledge

Individual nodes = meaning concepts Two (or more) connected nodes =


proposition (complex meaning)

Two or more propositions = schema We encode info that is consistent with an


existing schema more readily Service scripts

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Retrieval for Purchase Decisions

Retrieving information often requires


appropriate factors and cues: Physiological factors Situational factors Consumer attention; pioneering brand; descriptive brand names Viewing environment (continuous activity; commercial order in sequence) Post experience advertising effects
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What Makes Us Forget?

Appropriate factors/cues for


retrieval: State-dependent retrieval/ mood congruence effect Familiarity Salience/von Restorff effect Visual memory versus verbal memory
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Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli

Recognition versus recall Problems with memory measures Response biases Memory lapses Omitting Averaging Telescoping Illusion of truth effect
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The Marketing Power of Nostalgia

Marketers may
resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past Nostalgia Retro brand

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Discussion

What retro brands are targeted to you?


Were these brands that were once used by your parents?

What newer brands focus on nostalgia, even


though they never existed before?

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Chapter Summary

Marketers need to know how consumers


learn in order to develop effective messages.

Conditioning results in learning and learned


associations can generalize to other things.

Learning can be accomplished through


classical and instrumental conditioning and through observing the behavior of others.

We use memory systems to store and


retrieve information.
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