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PCI 6

th
Edition
Headed Concrete Anchors (HCA)
Presentation Outine
Research Background
Steel Capacity
Concrete Tension Capacity
Tension Example
Concrete Shear Capacity
Shear Example
Interaction Example
Background for
Headed Concrete Anchor Design
Anchorage to concrete and the design of
welded headed studs has undergone a
significant transformation since the Fifth
Edition of the Handbook.
Concrete Capacity Design (CCD) approach
has been incorporated into ACI 318-02
Appendix D

Headed Concrete Anchor Design History
The shear capacity equations are based on
PCI sponsored research
The Tension capacity equations are based on
the ACI Appendix D equations only modified
for cracking and common PCI variable names
Background for
Headed Concrete Anchor Design
PCI sponsored an extensive research project,
conducted by Wiss, Janney, Elstner
Associates, Inc., (WJE), to study design
criteria of headed stud groups loaded in
shear and the combined effects of shear and
tension
Section D.4.2 of ACI 318-02 specifically
permits alternate procedures, providing the
test results met a 5% fractile criteria
Supplemental Reinforcement
Appendix D, Commentary

supplementary reinforcement in the direction of
load, confining reinforcement, or both, can greatly
enhance the strength and ductility of the anchor
connection.

Reinforcement oriented in the direction of load and
proportioned to resist the total load within the
breakout prism, and fully anchored on both side of
the breakout planes, may be provided instead of
calculating breakout capacity.
HCA Design Principles
Performance based on the location of the
stud relative to the member edges
Shear design capacity can be increased with
confinement reinforcement
In tension, ductility can be provided by
reinforcement that crosses the potential
failure surfaces

HCA Design Principles
Designed to resist
Tension
Shear
Interaction of the two
The design equations are applicable to studs
which are welded to steel plates or other
structural members and embedded in
unconfined concrete
HCA Design Principles
Where feasible, connection failure should be
defined as yielding of the stud material
The groups strength is taken as the smaller of
either the concrete or steel capacity
The minimum plate thickness to which studs
are attached should be the diameter of the
stud
Thicker plates may be required for bending
resistance or to ensure a more uniform load
distribution to the attached studs
Stainless Steel Studs
Can be welded to either stainless steel or
mild carbon steel
Fully annealed stainless steel studs are
recommended when welding stainless steel
studs to a mild carbon steel base metal
Annealed stud use has been shown to be
imperative for stainless steel studs welded to
carbon steel plates subject to repetitive or
cyclic loads
Stud Dimensions
Table 6.5.1.2
Page 6-12
Steel Capacity
Both Shear and Tension governed by
same basic equation
Strength reduction factor is a function of
shear or tension
The ultimate strength is based on F
ut

and not F
y
Steel Capacity
|V
s
= |N
s
= |nA
se
f
ut


Where
| = steel strength reduction factor
= 0.65 (shear)
= 0.75 (tension)
V
s
= nominal shear strength steel capacity
N
s
= nominal tensile strength steel capacity
n = number of headed studs in group
A
se
= nominal area of the headed stud shank
f
ut
= ultimate tensile strength of the stud steel

Material Properties
Adapted from AWS D1.1-02
Table 6.5.1.1 page 6-11
Concrete Capacity
ACI 318-02, Appendix D, Anchoring to
Concrete
Cover many types of anchors
In general results in more conservative
designs than those shown in previous
editions of this handbook
Cracked Concrete
ACI assumes concrete is cracked
PCI assumes concrete is cracked
All equations contain adjustment factors for
cracked and un-cracked concrete
Typical un-cracked regions of members
Flexural compression zone
Column or other compression members
Typical precast concrete
Typical cracked regions of members
Flexural tension zones
Potential of cracks during handling
The 5% fractile
ACI 318-02, Section D.4.2 states, in part:
The nominal strength shall be based on the 5
percent fractile of the basic individual anchor
strength
Statistical concept that, simply stated,
if a design equation
is based on tests,
5 percent of the
tests are allowed
to fall below
expected
5% Failures
Capacity
Test strength
The 5% fractile
This allows us to say with 90 percent
confidence that 95 percent of the test actual
strengths exceed the equation thus derived
Determination of the coefficient , associated
with the 5 percent fractile ()
Based on sample population,n number of tests
x the sample mean
is the standard deviation of the sample set
The 5% fractile
Example values of based on sample size
are:
n = = 1.645
n = 40 = 2.010
n = 10 = 2.568
Strength Reduction Factor
Function of supplied confinement reinforcement

| = 0.75 with reinforcement
| = 0.70 with out reinforcement
Notation Definitions
Edges
d
e1
, d
e2
, d
e3
, d
e4
Stud Layout
x1, x2,
y1, y2,
X, Y
Critical Dimensions
BED, SED

Concrete Tension Failure Modes
Design tensile strength is the minimum of the
following modes:
Breakout
|N
cb
: usually the most critical failure mode
Pullout
|N
ph
: function of bearing on the head of the stud
Side-Face blowout
|N
sb
: studs cannot be closer to an edge than 40% the
effective height of the studs
Concrete Tension Strength
|N
cb
: Breakout
|N
ph
: Pullout
|N
sb
: Side-Face blowout
|T
n
= Minimum of
Concrete Breakout Strength
Where:
C
crb
= Cracked concrete factor, 1 uncracked, 0.8 Cracked
A
N
= Projected surface area for a stud or group
+
ed,N
=Modification for edge distance
C
bs
= Breakout strength coefficient


N
cb
= N
cbg
= C
bs
A
N
C
crb

ed,N

C
bs
= 3.33
f '
c
h
ef
Effective Embedment Depth
h
ef
= effective embedment depth
For headed studs welded to a plate
flush with the surface, it is the nominal
length less the head thickness, plus the
plate thickness (if fully recessed),
deducting the stud burnoff lost during
the welding process about
1
/
8
in.
Projected Surface Area, A
n
Based on 35
o
A
N
- calculated, or
empirical equations
are provided in the
PCI handbook
Critical edge
distance is 1.5h
ef


No Edge Distance Restrictions

For a single stud, with d
e,min
> 1.5h
ef
( ) ( )
2
No ef ef ef
A 2 1.5 h 2 1.5 h 9 h ( ( = =

Side Edge Distance, Single Stud

d
e1
< 1.5h
ef

( ) ( ) ( )
N e1 ef ef
A d 1.5 h 2 1.5 h = +
Side Edge Distance, Two Studs

d
e1
< 1.5h
ef


( ) ( ) ( )
N e1 ef ef
A d X 1.5 h 2 1.5 h = + +
Side and Bottom Edge Distance,
Multi Row and Columns
d
e1
< 1.5h
ef

d
e2
< 1.5h
ef


( ) ( )
N e1 ef e2 ef
A d X 1.5 h d Y 1.5 h = + + + +
Edge Distance Modification
+
ed,N
= modification for edge distance



d
e,min
= minimum edge distance, top, bottom, and
sides
PCI also provides tables to directly calculate |N
cb
, but
C
bs
, C
crb
, and +
ed,N
must still be determined for the in
situ condition
e,min
ed,N
ef
d
0.7 0.3 1.0
1.5 h
| |
= + s
|

\ .
Determine Breakout Strength, |N
cb
The PCI handbook
provides a design
guide to determine
the breakout area
Determine Breakout Strength, |N
cb
First find the edge
condition that
corresponds to the
design condition

Eccentrically Loaded

When the load application cannot be logically
assumed concentric.



Where:
e
N
= eccentricity of the tensile force relative
to the center of the stud group
e
N
s/2
ec,N
N
ef
1
1.0
2 e'
1
3 h
= s
| |

+
|

\ .
Pullout Strength

Nominal pullout strength


Where
A
brg
= bearing area of the stud head
= area of the head area of the shank
C
crp
= cracking coefficient (pullout)
= 1.0 uncracked
= 0.7 cracked

N
pn
= 11.2 A
brg
f '
c
C
crp
Side-Face Blowout Strength

For a single headed stud located close to an
edge (d
e1
< 0.4h
ef
)



Where
N
sb
= Nominal side-face blowout strength
d
e1
= Distance to closest edge
A
brg
= Bearing area of head

N
sb
= 160 d
e1
A
brg
f '
c
Side-Face Blowout Strength
If the single headed stud is located at a perpendicular
distance, d
e2
, less then 3d
e1
from an edge, N
sb
, is
multiplied by:




Where:

e2
e1
d
1
d
4
| |
+
|
\ .

1 s
d
e2
d
e1
s 3
Side-Face Blowout

For multiple headed anchors located close to an
edge (d
e1
< 0.4h
ef
)



Where
s
o
= spacing of the outer anchors along the
edge in the group
N
sb
= nominal side-face blowout strength for
a single anchor previously defined
o
sbg sb
e1
s
N 1 N
6 d
| |
= +
|

\ .
Example: Stud Group Tension
Given:
A flush-mounted base plate with four headed studs
embedded in a corner of a 24 in. thick foundation slab
(4) in. | headed studs welded to in thick plate
Nominal stud length = 8 in
f
c
= 4000 psi (normal weight concrete)
f
y
= 60,000 psi
Example: Stud Group Tension
Problem:
Determine the design
tension strength of the
stud group

Solution Steps
Step 1 Determine effective depth
Step 2 Check for edge effect
Step 3 Check concrete strength of stud group
Step 4 Check steel strength of stud group
Step 5 Determine tension capacity
Step 6 Check confinement steel

Step 1 Effective Depth
ef pl hs
1
h L t t "
8
3 1 1
8" " " "
2 8 8
8"
= +
= +
=

h
ef
= L + t
pl
t
ns

1
8
= 8 +
1
2

3
8

1
8
= 8in
Step 2 Check for Edge Effect
Design aid, Case 4
X = 16 in.
Y = 8 in.
d
e1
= 4 in.
d
e3
= 6 in.
d
e1
and d
e3
> 1.5h
ef
= 12 in.

Edge effects apply
d
e,min
= 4 in.

Step 2 Edge Factor
e,min
ed,N
ef
d
0.7 0.3 1.0
1.5 h
4in.
.7 0.3
1.5 8in
0.8
| |
= + s
|

\ .
| |
= +
|

\ .
=
Step 3 Breakout Strength
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
c
bs
ef
cbg bs e1 ef ef ed,n crb
f ' 4000
C 3.33 3.33 74.5lbs
h 8
From design aid, case 4
N C d X 1.5h de3 Y 1.5h C
0.8
0.75 74.5 4 16 12 6 8 12 1.0
1000
37.2kips
= = =
= | + + + +
| |
= + + + +
|
\ .
=
Step 3 Pullout Strength

A
brg
= 0.79in
2
4studs
|N
pn
= | (11.2) A
brg
f '
c
C
crp
= 0.7(11.2)(3.16)(4)(1.0)
= 99.1kips
Step 3 Side-Face Blowout Strength
d
e,min
= 4 in. > 0.4h
ef

= 4 in. > 0.4(8) = 3.2 in.

Therefore, it is not critical
Step 4 Steel Strength

|N
s
= | n A
se
f
ut
= 0.75(4)(0.44)(65)
= 85.8kips
Step 5 Tension Capacity
The controlling tension capacity for the stud
group is Breakout Strength



|T
n
= N
cbg
= 37.2kips
Step 6 Check Confinement Steel
Crack plane area = 4 in. x 8 in. = 32 in.
2







( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1000 32 1.4
1000
37, 000
1.20 3.4
37.2
0.75 60 1.2
0.68

= =
= <
= = =

|
cr
e
u
u
vf
y e
A
V
V
A
f
in
Step 6 Confinement Steel
Use 2 - #6 L-bar
around stud group.
These bars should
extend l
d
past the
breakout surface.

Concrete Shear Strength

The design shear strength governed by
concrete failure is based on the testing
The in-place strength should be taken as the
minimum value based on computing both the
concrete and steel

|V
c(failure mode)
= | V
co(failure mode)
C
[
V
co(failure mode)
anchor strength
C
x(failure mode)
x spacing influence
C
y(failure mode)
y spacing influence
C
h(failure mode)
thickness influence
C
ev(failure mode)
eccentricity influence
C
c(failure mode)
corner influence
C
vcr
cracking influence
Front Edge Shear Strength, V
c3

SED
BED
> 3.0
Corner Edge Shear Strength, Modified V
c3

0.2 s
SED
BED
s 3.0
Side Edge Shear Strength, V
c1

SED
BED
< 0.2

Front Edge Shear Strength

Where
V
co3
= Concrete breakout strength, single anchor
C
x3
=X spacing coefficient
C
h3
= Member thickness coefficient
C
ev3
= Eccentric shear force coefficient
C
vcr
= Member cracking coefficient

|V
c3
= |V
co3
C
x3
C
h3
C
ev3
C
vcr
Single Anchor Strength
Where:
= lightweight concrete factor
BED = distance from back row of studs to
front edge

V
co3
= 16.5 f '
c
BED
( )
1.33

= d
e3
+ y

= d
e3
+ Y
X Spacing factor
Where:
X = Overall, out-to-out dimension of
outermost
studs in back row of anchorage
n
studs-back
= Number of studs in back row



C
x3
= 0.85 +
X
3 BED
s n
studsback
Thickness Factor
Where:
h = Member thickness

C
h3
= 0.75
h
BED
for h s 1.75 BED
C
h3
= 1 for h > 1.75 BED
Eccentricity Factor
Where
e
v
= Eccentricity of shear force on a group of
anchors

C
ev3
=
1
1 + 0.67
e'
v
BED
|
\

|
.
|
s 1.0 when e'
v
s
X
2
Cracked Concrete Factor

Uncracked concrete
C
vcr
= 1.0

For cracked concrete,
C
vcr
= 0.70 no reinforcement
or
reinforcement < No. 4 bar
= 0.85 reinforcement No. 4 bar
= 1.0 reinforcement. No. 4 bar and
confined within stirrups with a
spacing 4 in.
Corner Shear Strength

A corner condition should
be considered when:



where the Side Edge
distance (SED) as
shown

0.2 s
SED
BED
s 3.0
Corner Shear Strength

Where:
C
h3
= Member thickness coefficient
C
ev3
= Eccentric shear coefficient
C
vcr
= Member cracking coefficient
C
c3
= Corner influence coefficient

|V
c3
= |V
co3
C
c3
C
h3
C
ev3
C
vcr
Corner factor
For the special case of a large X-spacing stud
anchorage located near a corner, such that
SED/BED > 3, a corner failure may still result,
if d
e1
2.5BED


C
c3
= 0.7
SED
BED
3
s 1.0
Side Edge Shear Strength

In this case, the shear force is applied parallel
to the side edge, d
e1




Research determined that the corner influence
can be quite large, especially in thin panels
If the above ratio is close to the 0.2 value, it is
recommended that a corner breakout condition
be investigated, as it may still control for large
BED values

0.2 s
SED
BED
s 3.0
Side Edge Shear Strength






|V
c1
= |V
co1
C
X1
C
Y1
C
ev1
C
vcr
Where:
V
co1
= nominal concrete breakout strength for a
single stud
C
X1
= X spacing coefficient
C
Y1
= Y spacing coefficient
C
ev1
= Eccentric shear coefficient
Single Anchor Strength
Where:
d
e1
= Distance from side stud to side edge (in.)
d
o
= Stud diameter (in.)

V
co
= 87 f '
c
d
e1
( )
1.33
d
o
( )
0.75
X Spacing Factor
Where:
n
x
= Number of X-rows
x = Individual X-row spacing (in.)
n
sides
=Number of edges or sides that influence
the X direction

C
x1
=
n
x
x
2.5 d
e1
+ 2 n
sides
C
x1
= 1.0 when x = 0
X Spacing Factor
For all multiple Y-row anchorages located
adjacent to two parallel edges, such as a
column corbel connection, the X-spacing for
two or more studs in the row:

C
x1
= n
x
Y Spacing Factor
Where:
n
y
= Number of Y-rows
Y = Out-to-out Y-row spacing (in) = Ey (in)
( )
Y1 y
0.25
y
Y1 y y
e1
C 1.0 for n 1 (one Y - row)
n Y
C 0.15 n for n 1
0.6 d
= =

= + s >

Eccentricity Factor
Where:
e
v1
= Eccentricity form shear load to
anchorage centroid
v1
ev1
e1
e
C 1.0 1.0
4 d
| |
= s
|

\ .
Back Edge Shear Strength

Under a condition of pure shear the
back edge has been found through
testing to have no influence on the
group capacity
Proper concrete clear cover from the
studs to the edge must be maintained
In the Field Shear Strength

When a headed stud anchorage is sufficiently
away from all edges, termed in-the-field of
the member, the anchorage strength will
normally be governed by the steel strength
Pry-out failure is a concrete breakout failure
that may occur when short, stocky studs are
used
In the Field Shear Strength

For h
ef
/d
e
4.5 (in normal weight concrete)





Where:
V
cp
= nominal pry-out shear strength (lbs)

|V
cp
= | 215
y
n f '
c
(d
o
)
1.5
(h
ef
)
0.5

y
=
y
4 d
o
for
y
d
s 20
Front Edge Failure Example
Given:
Plate with headed studs as shown, placed in a position
where cracking is unlikely. The 8 in. thick panel has a
28-day concrete strength of 5000 psi. The plate is
loaded with an
eccentricity of
1 in from the
centerline. The
panel has #5
confinement bars.
Example
Problem:
Determine the design shear strength of
the stud group.
Solution Steps
Step 1 Check corner condition
Step 2 Calculate steel capacity
Step 3 Front Edge Shear Strength
Step 4 Calculate shear capacity coefficients
Step 5 Calculate shear capacity


Step 1 Check Corner Condition
Not a Corner Condition

SED
BED
> 3
48 + 4
12 + 4
= 3.25
Step 2 Calculate Steel Capacity
|V
ns
= |n
s
A
n
f
ut

= 0.65(4)(0.20)(65) = 33.8 kips
Step 3 Front Edge Shear Strength
Front Edge Shear Strength

|V
c3
= |V
co3
C
x3
C
h3
C
ev3
C
vcr
Step 4 Shear Capacity Coefficient





( )
( )
( )
( )
1.33
co3 c
1.33
V 16.5 f ' BED
16.5 1 5000 12 4

1000
47.0kips
=
+
=
=
Concrete Breakout Strength, Vco3
Step 4 Shear Capacity Coefficient

C
x3
= 0.85 +
X
3 BED
s n
studsback
= 0.85 +
4
3 16
= 0.93 s
= 0.93
X Spacing Coefficient, Cx3
Step 4 Shear Capacity Coefficient

Check if h s 1.75 BED
8 s 1.75 16 OK
C
h3
= 0.75
h
BED

= 0.75
8
16
= 0.53
Member Thickness Coefficient, Ch3
Step 4 Shear Capacity Coefficient

Check if e'
v
s
X
2
1.5 s
4
2
OK
C
ev3
=
1
1 + 0.67
e'
v
BED
|
\

|
.
|
s 1.0
=
1
1 + 0.67
1.5
16
|
\

|
.
|
= 0.94
Eccentric Shear Force Coefficient, Cev3
Step 4 Shear Capacity Coefficient
Member Cracking Coefficient, C
vcr
Assume uncracked region of member



#5 Perimeter Steel




C
vcr
= 1.0

| = 0.75
Step 5 Shear Design Strength
|V
cs
= |V
co3
C
x3
C
h3
C
ev3
C
vcr
= 0.75(47.0)(0.93)(0.53)(0.94)(1.0)
= 16.3 kips
Interaction
Trilinear Solution
Unity curve with a
5
/
3
exponent
Interaction Curves
Combined Loading Example
Given:
A in thick plate with
headed studs for
attachment of a steel
bracket to a column as
shown at the right
Problem:
Determine if the studs
are adequate for the
connection


Example Parameters
f
c
= 6000 psi normal weight concrete
= 1.0
(8) 1/2 in diameter studs
A
se
= 0.20 in.
2

Nominal stud length = 6 in.
f
ut
= 65,000 psi (Table 6.5.1.1)
V
u
= 25 kips
N
u
= 4 kips
Column size: 18 in. x 18 in.
Provide ties around vertical bars in the
column to ensure confinement: | = 0.75

Determine effective depth
h
ef
= L + t
pl
t
hs

1
/
8
in
= 6 + 0.5 0.3125 0.125 = 6.06 in


Solution Steps
Step 1 Determine applied loads
Step 2 Determine tension design
strength
Step 3 Determine shear design strength
Step 4 Interaction Equation


Step 1 Determine applied loads
Determine net
Tension on Tension
Stud Group
Determine net Shear
on Shear Stud
Group

N
hu
=
V
u
e
d
c
+ N
u
=
25 6
( )
10
+ 4
= 19.0kips

V
u
=
V
u
2
=
25
2
= 12.5kips
Step 2 Concrete Tension Capacity
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cb bs N crb ed,N
c
bs
ef
N e1 e2 ef
e,min
ed,N
ef
cb
N C A C
f ' 6000
C 3.33 3.33 1 104.8
h 6.06
A d X d Y 3h 6 6 6 3 3 6.06 381.24
d
6
0.7 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.898
1.5h 1.5 6.06
0.75 381.24 104.8 0.898
N 26.9kips
1000
| = |
= = =
= + + + = + + + =
= + = + =
| = =
Step 2 Steel Tension Capacity
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s se ut
s
N n A f
0.75 4 0.2 65
N 39.0kips
1000
| = |
| = =
Step 2 Governing Tension
cb s
n
N 26.9kips N 39.0kips
N 26.9kips
| = | =
| =
Step 3 Concrete Shear Capacity
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
c1 co1 X1 Y1 ev1 vcr
1.33 0.75
co c e1 o
1.33 0.75
x1
0.25
0.25
y
Y1
e1
ev1
vcr
c1
V V C C C C
V 87 f ' d d
87 1 6000 6 0.5 43.7kips
C 2
n Y 2 3
C 0.15 0.15 0.58
0.6 d 0.6 6
C 1.0
C 1.0
V 0.75 43.7 2 0.58 1 1 38.0kips
| = |
=
= =
=
(

= + = + =

=
=
| = =
Step 3 Steel Shear Capacity
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s se ut
s
V n A f
0.65 4 0.2 65
V 33.8kips
1000
| = |
| = =
Step 3 Governing Shear
c s
n
V 38.0kips V 33.8kips
V 33.8kips
| = | =
| =
Step 4 Interaction
Check if Interaction is required

If V
u
< 0.2 |V
n
( )
Interaction is not Required
12.5 < 0.2 33.8
( )
12.5 > 6.76 - Interaction Required
If N
hu
< 0.2 |N
n
( )
Interaction is not Required
19 < 0.2 26.9
( )
19 > 5.38 - Interaction Required
Step 4 Interaction

N
hu
|N
n
+
V
u
|V
n
=
19.0
26.9
+
12.5
33.8
= 0.71 + 0.37 = 1.08 s 1.2
OR
N
hu
|N
n
|
\

|
.
|
5
3
+
v
u
|V
n
|
\

|
.
|
5
3
= 0.71
( )
5
3
+ 0.37
( )
5
3
= 0.75 s 1.0
Questions?