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Amplitude Modulation

Baseband vs Passband Transmission


Baseband signals:
Voice (0-4kHz)
TV (0-6 MHz)
A signal may be sent in
its baseband format
when a dedicated wired
channel is available.
Otherwise, it must be
converted to passband.


Modulation: What and Why?
The process of shifting the baseband signal to
passband range is called Modulation.
The process of shifting the passband signal to
baseband frequency range is called
Demodulation.
Reasons for modulation:
Simultaneous transmission of several signals
Practical Design of Antennas
Exchange of power and bandwidth
Types of (Carrier) Modulation
In modulation, one characteristic of a signal
(generally a sinusoidal wave) known as the
carrier is changed based on the information
signal that we wish to transmit (modulating
signal).
That could be the amplitude, phase, or frequency,
which result in Amplitude modulation (AM),
Phase modulation (PM), or Frequency
modulation (FM). The last two are combined as
Angle Modulation

Types of Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Double Sideband with carrier (we will call it AM):
This is the most widely used type of AM modulation.
In fact, all radio channels in the AM band use this type
of modulation.
Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC):
This is the same as the AM modulation above but
without the carrier.
Single Sideband (SSB): In this modulation, only half
of the signal of the DSBSC is used.
Vestigial Sideband (VSB): This is a modification of
the SSB to ease the generation and reception of the
signal.
Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
Assume that we have a message signal m(t) with
bandwidth 2t B rad/s (or B Hz). m(t) M(e).

Let c(t) be a carrier signal, c(t) = cos(e
c
t), e
c
>> 2tB
g
DSBSC
(t) = m(t)cos(e
c
t)

(1/2) [M(e e
c
) + M(e + e
c
)].
X
m(t)
c(t)
g
DSBSC
(t)
DSBSC Modulator (transmitter)
Time and Frequency Representation of DSBSC Modulation Process

DSBSC Demodulation



e (t)=g
DSBSC
(t)cos(e
c
t)
= m(t)cos
2
(e
c
t)
= (1/2) m(t) [1 + cos(2e
c
t)]
= (1/2) m(t) + (1/2) m(t) cos(2 e
c
t)
E(e) (1/2) M(e) + (1/4) [M(e 2 e
c
) + M(e + 2 e
c
)].
The output signal f(t) of the LPF will be
f (t) = (1/2) m(t) (1/2) M(e).
X
c(t)
g
DSBSC
(t)
e(t)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
f(t)
DSBSC Demodulator (receiver)
Time and Frequency Representation of DSBSC Demodulation Process
Modulator Circuits
Basically we are after multiplying a signal with
a carrier.
There are three realizations of this operation:
Multiplier Circuits
Non-Linear Circuits
Switching Circuits

Non-Linear Devices (NLD)
A NLD is a device whose input-output relation is non-
linear. One such example is the diode (i
D
=e
v
D
/v
T
).
The output of a NLD can be expressed as a power
series of the input, that is
y(t) = ax(t) + bx
2
(t) + cx
3
(t) +
When x(t) << 1, the higher powers can be neglected,
and the output can be approximated by the first two
terms.
When the input x(t) is the sum of two signal, m(t)+c(t),
x
2
(t) will have the product term m(t)c(t)

Non-Linear Modulators

+
z(t)
y
1
(t)
y
2
(t)
+

E
DSBSC modulation using non-linear device
Non-Linear Device
a( . )+b( . )
2
H
BPF
(e)
Cntr Freq. = e
C
BW = 4tB
m(t)
c(t)
x
1
(t)
q(t)
E
Non-Linear Device
a( . )+b( . )
2
x
2
(t)
+
E
| | | |

| | | |




Undesired
C
Undesired
Undesired
C
Desired
C
Undesired Undesired
C C C
C C
Undesired
C
Undesired
Undesired
C
Desired
C
Undesired Undesired
C C C
C C
t
b b
t a t t bm t bm t am
t b t t bm t bm t am t a
t m t b t m t a t y
t
b b
t a t t bm t bm t am
t b t t bm t bm t am t a
t m t b t m t a t y
) 2 cos(
2 2
) cos( ) cos( ) ( 2 ) ( ) (
) ( cos ) cos( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) cos(
) ( ) cos( ) ( ) cos( ) (
) 2 cos(
2 2
) cos( ) cos( ) ( 2 ) ( ) (
) ( cos ) cos( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) cos(
) ( ) cos( ) ( ) cos( ) (
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
e e e
e e e
e e
e e e
e e e
e e
+ + + + =
+ + =
+ =
+ + + + + =
+ + + + =
+ + + =
) ( ) cos( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) cos( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
t m t t m t c t x
t m t t m t c t x
C
C
= =
+ = + =
e
e

Desired
C
Undesired
t t bm t am
t y t y t z
) cos( ) ( 4 ) ( 2
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
e + =
=
Switching Modulators
Any periodic function can be expressed as a
series of cosines (Fourier Series).
The information signal, m(t), can therefore be,
equivalently, multiplied by any periodic
function, and followed by BPF.
Let this periodic function be a train of pulses.
Multiplication by a train of pulses can be
realized by simple switching.
Switching Modulator Illustration
Switching Modulator: Diode Bridge
Switching Modulator: Ring
Demodulation of DSBSC
The modulator circuits can be used for demodulation, but
replacing the BPF by a LPF of bandwidth B Hz.
The receiver must generate a carrier frequency in phase
and frequency synchronization with the incoming carrier.
This type of demodulation is therefore called coherent
demodulation (or detection).


X
c(t)
g
DSBSC
(t)
e(t)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
f(t)
DSBSC Demodulator (receiver)
From DSBSC to DSBWC (AM)
Carrier recovery circuits, which are required for
the operation of coherent demodulation, are
sophisticated and could be quite costly.
If we can let m(t) be the envelope of the
modulated signal, then a much simpler circuit,
the envelope detector, can be used for
demodulation (non-coherent demodulation).
How can we make m(t) be the envelope of the
modulated signal?
Definition of AM
Shift m(t) by some DC value A
such that A+m(t) 0. Or A m
peak




Called DSBWC. Here will refer to
it as Full AM, or simply AM
Modulation index = m
p
/A.
0 1
) cos( ) ( ) cos(
) cos( )] ( [ ) (
t t m t A
t t m A t g
C C
C AM
e e
e
+ =
+ =
Spectrum of AM

| | | | ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
C C C C AM
M M A t g e e e e e e o e e o t + + + + +
The Buy and Price of AM
Buy: Simplicity in demodulation.
Price: Waste in Power
g
AM
(t) = Acose
c
t + m(t) cose
c
t
Carrier Power P
c
= A
2
/2 (carries no information)
Sideband Power P
s
= P
m
/2 (useful)
Power efficiency = q = P
s
/(P
c
+ P
s
)= P
m
/(A
2
+P
m
)

Tone Modulation
m(t) = Bcos(e
m
t)
g(t)=[A+ Bcos(e
m
t)] cose
c
t = A[1+ cos(e
m
t)] cose
c
t
q = (B
2
/2)/(B
2
/2 + A
2
) =
2
/(2+
2
)
Under best conditions, =1 q
max
=1/3 =33%
For = 0.5, q = 11.11%
For practical signals, q < 25%
? Would you use AM or DSBSC?
Generation of AM
AM signals can be generated by any DSBSC
modulator, by using A+m(t) as input instead of
m(t).
In fact, the presence of the carrier term can
make it even simpler. We can use it for
switching instead of generating a local carrier.
The switching action can be made by a single
diode instead of a diode bridge.
AM Generator


A >> m(t)
(to ensure switching
at every period).


v
R
=[cose
c
t+m(t)][1/2 + 2/t(cose
c
t-1/3cos3e
c
t + )]
=(1/2)cose
c
t+(2/t)m(t) cose
c
t + other terms (suppressed by BPF)
v
o
(t) = (1/2)cose
c
t+(2/t)m(t) cose
c
t
cos(e
c
t)
m(t)
R
BPF
v
o
(t)
A
AM Modulation Process (Frequency)

AM Demodulation: Rectifier Detector
Because of the presence of a carrier term in the
received signal, switching can be performed in
the same way we did in the modulator.

[A+m(t)]cos(e
c
t)
LPF m(t)
C
R
Rectifier Detector: Time Domain
Rectifier Detector (Frequency Domain)

Envelope Detector
When D is forward-biased, the capacitor charges and
follows input.
When D is reverse-biased, the capacitor discharges
through R.
[A+m(t)]cos(e
c
t)
v
o
(t)
R
C
Envelope Detection
The operations of the circuit requires
careful selection of t=RC
If RC is too large, discharging will be
slow and the circuit cannot follow a
decreasing envelope.
When RC is too small the ripples will
be high.
1/(2tB) << t << 1/e
c

The ripples are finally removed by
LPF.
The DC value is blocked by a capacitor.

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
In DSBSC or AM the modulated signal
occupies double the bandwidth of the baseband
signal.
It is possible to send two signals over the same
band, one modulated with a cosine and one
with sine.
Interesting enough, the two signals can be
received separately after demodulation.
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
X
m
1
(t)
cos(e
c
t)
QAM Modulator/Demodulator
E
m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)
X
m
2
(t)
sin(e
c
t)
Phase Shifter
t/2
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t) + m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)
X
m
1
(t)/2
cos(e
c
t)
X
m
2
(t)/2
sin(e
c
t)
Phase Shifter
t/2
m
1
(t)cos
2
(e
c
t) + m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)cos(e
c
t)
=m
1
(t)/2+m
1
(t) cos(2e
c
t)/2 + m
2
(t)sin(2e
c
t)/2
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
Baseband
Around 2e
c
Around 2e
c
m
1
(t)sin(e
c
t)cos(e
c
t) + m
2
(t)sin
2
(e
c
t)
=m
1
(t)sin(2e
c
t)/2 + m
2
(t)/2 m
2
(t)cos(2e
c
t)/2
Baseband
Around 2e
c
Around 2e
c
QUADRATURE
modulator branch
IN-PHASE
modulator branch
QUADRATURE
demodulator branch
IN-PHASE
demodulator branch
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
X
m
1
(t)
cos(e
c
t)
QAM Modulator/Demodulator with Demodulator Carrier Phase and/or Frequency Error
E
m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)
X
m
2
(t)
sin(e
c
t)
Phase Shifter
t/2
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t) + m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)
X
(1/2)[m
1
(t)cos(Aet+u) m
2
(t)sin(Aet+u)]
cos[(e
c
+Ae)t+u|
X
(1/2)[m
1
(t)sin(Aet+u) + m
2
(t)cos(Aet+u)]
sin[(e
c
+Ae)t+u|
Phase Shifter
t/2
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t)cos[(e
c
+Ae)t+u| + m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)cos[(e
c
+Ae)t+u|
=(1/2)[m
1
(t)cos(Aet+u) + m
1
(t) cos(2e
c
t+Aet+u) m
2
(t)sin(Aet+u) + m
2
(t)sin(2e
c
t+Aet+u)]
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
Baseband
Around 2e
c
Around 2e
c
Baseband
Around 2e
c
Around 2e
c
Baseband
m
1
(t)cos(e
c
t)sin[(e
c
+Ae)t+u| + m
2
(t)sin(e
c
t)sin[(e
c
+Ae)t+u|
=(1/2)[m
1
(t)sin(Aet+u) + m
1
(t) sin(2e
c
t+Aet+u) + m
2
(t)cos(Aet+u) m
2
(t)cos(2e
c
t+Aet+u)]
Baseband
Single-Side Band (SSB) Modulation
DSBSC (as well as AM) occupies double the
bandwidth of the baseband signal, although the two
sides carry the same information.
Why not send only one side, the upper or the lower?
Modulation: similar to DSBSC. Only change the
settings of the BPF (center frequency, bandwidth).
Demodulation: similar to DSBSC (coherent)
SSB Representation
How would we
represent the SSB signal
in the time domain?
g
USB
(t) = ?
g
LSB
(t) = ?

Time-Domain Representation of SSB (1/2)
M(e) = M
+
(e) + M
-
(e)
Let m
+
(t)M
+
(e) and m
-
(t)M
-
(e)
Then: m(t) = m
+
(t) + m
-
(t) [linearity]
Because M
+
(e), M
-
(e) are not even
m
+
(t), m
-
(t) are complex.
Since their sum is real they must be
conjugates.
m
+
(t) = [m(t) + j m
h
(t)]
m
-
(t) = [m(t) - j m
h
(t)]
What is m
h
(t) ?


Time-Domain Representation of SSB (2/2)
M(e) = M
+
(e) + M
-
(e)
M
+
(e) = M(e)u(e); M
-
(e) = M(e)u(-e)
sgn(e)=2u(e) -1 u(e)= + sgn(e); u(-e) = - sgn(e)
M
+
(e) = [ M(e) + M(e)sgn(e)]
M
-
(e) = [M(e) - M(e)sgn(e)]
Comparing to:
m
+
(t) = [m(t) + j m
h
(t)] [M(e) + j M
h
(e)]
m
-
(t) = [m(t) - j m
h
(t)] [M(e) - j M
h
(e)]
We find
M
h
(e) = - j M(e)sgn(e) where m
h
(t)M
h
(e)


Hilbert Transform
m
h
(t) is known as the Hilbert Transform (HT) of m(t).
The transfer function of this transform is given by:
H(e) = -j sgn(e)






It is basically a t/2 phase shifter
e
H(e) = jsgn(e)
j
j
e
|H(e)| = 1
1
e
t/2
t/2
u
H
(e)= (t/2) sgn(e)
Hilbert Transform of cos(e
c
t)
cos(e
c
t) t |o(e ec) + o(e + ec)]
HT[cos(e
c
t)] -j sgn(e) t |o(e ec) + o(e + ec)]
= j sgn(e) t |o(e ec) o(e + ec)]
= j t |o(e ec) + o(e + ec)]
= j t |o(e + ec) - o(e - ec)] sin(e
c
t)

Which is expected since:

cos(e
c
t-t/2) = sin(e
c
t)





Time-Domain Operation for Hilbert Transformation
For Hilbert Transformation H(e) = -j sgn(e).
What is h(t)?
sgn(t) 2/(je) [From FT table]
2/(jt) 2t sgn(-e) [symmetry]
1/(t t) -j sgn(e)
Since M
h
(e) = - j M(e)sgn(e) = H(e) M(e)
Then
}



=
=
o
o
o
t
t
d
t
m
t m
t
t m
h
) ( 1
) ( *
1
) (

) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) (
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) (
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
t t m t t m
e t jm e t m
e t jm e t m t g
t t m t t m
e t jm e t m
e t jm e t m t g
C h C
t j
h
t j
t j
h
t j
LSB
C h C
t j
h
t j
t j
h
t j
USB
C C
C C
C C
C C
e e
e e
e e
e e
e e
e e
+ =
+ +
=
=
+
+ =


) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
C C LSB
C C USB
M M G
M M G
e e e e e
e e e e e
+ + =
+ + =
+
+
t j t j
LSB
t j t j
USB
C C
C C
e t m e t m t g
e t m e t m t g
e e
e e
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (

+
+ =
+ =
Finally
Generation of SSB
Selective Filtering Method
Realization based on spectrum analysis
Phase-Shift Method
Realization based on time-domain expression
of the modulated signal
Selective Filtering
G
DSBSC
(e)
e
C
+2tB
e
e
C
2tB e
C
e
C
e
C
+2tB e
C
2tB
USB LSB LSB USB
M(e)
+2tB
e
2tB e
C
e
C
G
USB
(e)
e
C
+2tB
e
e
C
e
C
e
C
2tB
USB USB
G
LSB
(e)
e
e
C
2tB e
C
e
C
e
C
+2tB
LSB LSB
H
USB
(e)
e
C
+2tB
e
e
C
2tB e
C
e
C
e
C
+2tB e
C
2tB
H
LSB
(e)
e
C
+2tB
e
e
C
2tB e
C
e
C
e
C
+2tB e
C
2tB
BW = 2tB (B Hz)
Center Freq = e
c
+tB
BW = 2tB (B Hz)
Center Freq = e
c
tB
M(e) (an example of an
audio signal)
e
5000 Hz 300 Hz 300 Hz 5000 Hz
Guard Band
of 600 Hz
Phase Shifting
X
cos(e
c
t)
SSB Modulator
E
X
sin(e
c
t)
Phase Shifter
t/2
Phase Shifter
t/2
m(t)
m
h
(t)
m
h
(t)sin(e
c
t)
m(t)cos(e
c
t)
g
SSB
(t)
g
USB
(t) if
g
LSB
(t) if +
+ or
(a)
(b) (c)
(d)
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) ( ) (
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) ( ) (
t t m t t m t g
t t m t t m t g
C h C LSB
C h C USB
e e
e e
+ =
=
Phase-shifting Method:
Frequency-Domain Illustration
SSB Demodulation (Coherent)
X
cos(e
c
t)
g
SSB
(t)
(Upper or Lower
Side bands)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
m(t)
SSB Demodulator (receiver)
) (
2
1
Output LPF
) 2 sin( ) (
2
1
)] 2 cos( 1 )[ (
2
1
) cos( ) (
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) ( ) (
t m
t t m t t m t t g
t t m t t m t g
C h C C SSB
C h C SSB
=
+ =
=
e e e
e e
FDM in Telephony
FDM is done in stages
Reduce number of carrier frequencies
More practical realization of filters
Group: 12 voice channels 4 kHz = 48 kHz
occupy the band 60-108 kHz
Supergroup: 5 groups 48 kHz = 240 kHz
occupy the band 312-552
Mastergroup: 10 S-G 240 kHz = 2400 kHz
occupy the band 564-3084 kHz
FDM Hierarchy
4
0
5
4
3
2
1
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
11
12
60 k
108 k
312 k
552 k
Group
Supergroup
Vestigial Side Band Modulation (VSB)
What if we want to generate SSB using
selective filtering but there is no guard band
between the two sides?
We will filter-in a vestige of the other band.
Can we still recover our message, without
distortion, after demodulation?
Yes. If we use a proper LPF.
Filtering Condition of VSB

X
2cos(e
c
t)
m(t)
H
VSB
(e)
(BPF)
g
VSB
(t)
VSB Modulator (transmitter)
g
DSBSC
(t)
X
2cos(e
c
t)
g
VSB
(t)
H
LPF
(e)
BW = 2tB
m(t)
VSB Demodulator (receiver)
x(t)
) cos( ) ( 2 ) ( t t m t g
C DSBSC
e =
) ( ) ( ) (
C C DSBSC
M M G e e e e e + + =
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
C C VSB VSB
M M H G e e e e e e + + =
(
(

+ + + +
(
(

+ =

+


C
C
at
C
baseband
C VSB
Baseband at
C C VSB
M M H
M M H X
e
e
e e e e e
e e e e e e
2
2
) 2 ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) (
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( e e e e e e e M H H H Z
C VSB C VSB LPF
+ + =
) ( ) (
1
) (
C VSB C VSB
LPF
H H
H
e e e e
e
+ +
=
; |e| 2 t B
VSB Filtering
H
VSB
(e)
e
e
C
e
C
H
VSB
(ee
c
)+H
VSB
(e+e
c
)
e
Shifted filter
components
e
Band of Signal
H
VSB
(ee
c
) = 1/[H
VSB
(ee
c
)+H
VSB
(e+e
c
)]
over the band of the signal only
e
Band of Signal
What happens outside the
band of the demodulated
signal is not important . So,
the LPF does not have to
inverse this part.
VSB Filter: Special Case
Condition For distortionless demodulation:


If we impose the condition on the filter at the modulator:

H
VSB
(ee
c
) + H
VSB
(e+e
c
) = 1 ; |e| 2 t B

Then H
LPF
= 1 for |e| 2 t B (Ideal LPF)
H
VSB
(e) will then have odd symmetry around e
c
over the
transition period.
) ( ) (
1
) (
C VSB C VSB
LPF
H H
H
e e e e
e
+ +
=
; |e| 2 t B
G
DSBSC
(e)
e
e
C
e
C
M(e)
+2tB
e
2tB e
C
e
C
H
VSB
(e)
e
2tB (B Hz) < BW < 4tB (2B Hz)
e
C
e
C
G
VSB
(e)
e
2e
C
e
C
X(e)
e
e
C
e
C
2e
C
M(e)
e
e
C
e
C
H
LPF
(e)
e
e
C
e
C
e
C
AM Broadcasting
Allocated the band 530 kHz 1600 kHz (with
minor variations)
10 kHz per channel. (9 kHz in some countries)
More that 100 stations can be licensed in the
same geographical area.
Uses AM modulation (DSB + C)

AM station Reception
In theory, any station can be extracted from the stream of spectra by
tuning the receiver BPF to its center frequency. Then demodulated.






Impracticalities:
Requires a BPF with very high Q-factor (Q = f
c
/ B).
Particularly difficult if the filter is to be tunable.
Solution: Superheterodyne receiver
Step 1: Frequency Translation from RF to IF
Shift the desired station to another fixed pass band
(called Intermediate Frequency IF = 455 kHz)
Step 2: Bandpass Filtering at IF
Build a good BPF around IF to extract the desired
station. It is more practical now, because IF is
relatively low (reasonable Q) and the filter is not
tunable.
Step 3: Demodulation
Use Envelope Detector

The Local Oscillator
What should be the frequency of the local
oscillator used for translation from RF to IF?
f
LO
= f
c
+ f
IF
(up-conversion)
or f
LO
= f
c
f
IF
(down-conversion)
Tuning ratio = f
LO, max
/ f
LO, min

Up-Conversion: (1600 + 455) / (530+455) 2
Down-Conversion: (1600455) / (530455) 12
Easier to design oscillator with small tuning ratio.
Image Station Problem
While up-converting the desired station to IF, we are,
at the same time, down-converting another station to IF
as well.
These two stations are called image stations, and they
are spaced by 2x455=910kHz.
Solution:
Before conversion, use a BPF (at RF) centered at f
c
of
the desired station.
The purpose of the filter is NOT to extract the desired
station, but to suppress its image. Hence, it does not
have to be very sharp.
Superheterodyne Receiver Block Diagram
Antenna
IF Stage
(intermediate frequency)
IF Amplifier
& IF BPF
X
Converter
(Multiplier)
a(t) b(t) d(t)
c(t)
Envelope Detector
Diode, Capacitor,
Resistor, & DC blocker
Audio Stage
Power amplifier
d(t) e(t) f(t) g(t)
Ganged RF
BPF and
Oscillator
RF Stage
(radio frequency)
RF Amplifier
& RF BPF
Local
Oscillator
cos[(e
c
+e
IF
)t]
Notes:
With one knob, we are tuning the RF Filter
and the local oscillator.
The filter are designed with high gain
to provide amplification as well.