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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 10
Quality Control
10-2
Chapter 10: Learning Objectives
You should be able to:
List and briefly explain the elements in the control proces
Explain how control charts are used to monitor a process
Explain the concepts underlying the use of control charts
Use and interpret control charts
Understand the use of run tests
Assess process capability
10-3
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Quality control seeks
Quality of Conformance
A product or service conforms to specifications
A tool used to help in this process:
SPC
Statistical evaluation of the output of a process
Helps us to decide if a process is in control or if
corrective action is needed
10-4
Process Variability
All processes generate output that exhibits
some degree of variability
The fundamental question:
Is the variation within acceptable boundaries?
10-5
Control Chart
UCL
LCL
Mean
Out of
control
Normal
variation
due to
chance
Abnormal variation
Abnormal variation
due to assignable causes
Each point on the control chart represents a sample of n
observations
10-6
Control Charts for Variables
Variables generate data that are measured
Mean control charts
Used to monitor the central tendency of a process.
X bar charts
Range control charts
Used to monitor the process dispersion
R charts

10-7
Establishing Control Limits
samples of number
sample of mean
means sample of Average
where

1
=
=
=
=

=
k
i x
x
k
x
x
i
k
i
i
i R
k
R
i
k
i
i
sample of Range
ranges sample of Average R
where
R
1
=
=
=

=
10-8
X-Bar Chart: Control Limits
Used to monitor the central tendency of a
process
n A
R A x LCL
R A x UCL
x
x
size, sample on based factor chart control a
where
Limits Control chart x
2
2
2
=
=
+ =

10-9
Range Chart: Control Limits
Used to monitor process dispersion
n D
n D
R D LCL
R D UCL
R
R
size, sample on based factor chart control a
size, sample on based factor chart control a
where
Limits Control Chart R
4
3
3
4
=
=
=
=
10-10
Control Charts for Attributes
Attributes generate data that are counted.
p-Chart
Control chart used to monitor the proportion of
defectives in a process
c-Chart
Control chart used to monitor the number of defects per
unit

10-11
Process Capability
Once a process has been determined to be stable, it is
necessary to determine if the process is capable of
producing output that is within an acceptable range
Tolerances or specifications
Range of acceptable values established by engineering
design or customer requirements
Process variability
Natural or inherent variability in a process
Process capability
Process variability relative to specification
10-12
C
p
: Process Capability Ratio
limit ification) rance(spec lower tole LTL
limit tion) (specifica rance upper tole UTL
where
6
LTL - UTL
=
=
=
o
p
C
10-13
C
pk
: Process Capability Index


Used when a process is not centered at its
target, or nominal, value
{ }
)
`


=
=
o o 3
LTL
,
3
UTL
min
, min
x x
C C C
pl pu pk
10-14
Taguchi Loss Function
10-15
Operations Strategy
Quality is a primary consideration for nearly all
customers
Achieving and maintaining quality standards is of
strategic importance to all business organizations
Product and service design
Increase capability in order to move from extensive use
of control charts and inspection to achieve desired
quality outcomes