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Sociolinguistics

History of Pidgin & Creole


Prepared for: Assoc. Prof. Dr Normah Abdullah
Prepared by; Rahmawati Othman 2008705137

Most Languages:
derived through an unbroken chain of normal language transmission
each generation inherit language; intacta few minor changes exception to this process is a rapid growth or loss of languages due to contact between languages

Historical & Universalist Theories


Historical Explanation
European Colonialism-language collision with indigenous language
superstrate: socially dominant

substrate: socially subordinate


Adstrate: another language involved that came into contact

Historical & Universalist Theories


Universalist Explanation
Pidgins - product of the same general kinds of contact processes

Creoles - product of nativisation of mixed, second languages which is basically child first language learning (FLA)

Portuguese-Based
Kristang Language ~ Creole -Spoken by a community of people of mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry in Malacca and Singapore. -About 5000 speakers in Malacca and 400 in Singapore -Originated after the conquest of Malacca in 1511 by Portuguese -Marriages between Portuguese and local Malay women -Similar grammatical structure to that of the Malay language

Examples:

Thank you = Mutu Merseh (Port. : Muitas Merces)


Good Afternoon = Bong Midia (Port. : Bom Meio-dia) How are you? = Teng Bong? (Port. : Estas Bom?)

Jamaican Patois
-

English-lexified creole language


with West African influences Developed in the 17th century-slaves from West & Central Africa are exposed to, learned & nativized English spoekn by their masters Exist mostly as spoken language

Examples:

Mi a di tiit a = I am a teacher
Mi haadbak nau = I am old now

We ju a du? = What are you doing?

Dutch-based Creole
Afrikaans West Germanic Language
-Spoken mainly in South Africa and Namibia -Borrowed from Malay, Portuguese, Bantu but 95% are of Dutch origin -Easier for Dutch to understand but not the other way around -Namibias Lingua Franca -Language of the western half of South Africa

Examples:
Afrikaans Dutch English

Hallo! Hoe gaan dit?

Hallo! Hoe gaat het?

How is it going?

African-based
1. Chilapalapa / Cikabanga Zimbabwe & Zambia primarily 2. Lingala / Bantu language Republic of Congo- some in Angola/Central African Republic (over 10 million speakers) 3. Sango language Trade language with borrowings from French and some Portuguese

Examples:

mbi = I

mo = you

lo = he,she,it (singular)

e, we, ala = he, she, they (plural)


mo yeke = you are -Do not split double consonants: BAMBARI = BA MBA RI TARANTULA = ?

English-based pidgin
1. Hawaiian Pidgin State of Hawaii - Used on plantations / sermons in Hawaii (workers from Japan, Korea, Philippines, etc) -Influenced by Portuguese, English, Hawaiian, Cantonese Example: Da book stay on top da table (The book is on the table) Aminah wen cry (Aminah cried)

English-based pidgin
2. Tok Pisin- Papua New Guinea -One of 3 official languages there and most widely used (5 6 million people) -Now is considered a distinct language in its own right -Result of Pacific Islanders intermixing languages when working in Queensland plantations -Of German, Malay, Portuguese, Austronesian languages

Others

Chinese-based pidgin Spanish-based pidgin Endangered pidgin macanoan/ray molu etc