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Main Tools for Radio Network

Optimization GSM
Statistic Handling Tool NWS (C); SPOS&Turle, Statics (I)

OSS Recording Tool PMR, RNO package (C)

Cell Data Design Tools CNA (C); IPOS, BSSTool (I)

Field Measurement TEMS only!!!

Field Measurement Analysis TEMS, MapInfo (C); MCOM (I)

Cell Planning Tool TEMS Cellplanner (C); MCOM (I)


Radio Network Growth Flow
Where does TEMS
INVESTIGATION fit in
Design & Rollout Operation & Improvement

Model Tuning Traditional Optimization

Network Integration Test Network Feature Optimization


Initial Tuning
Verification of Network Changes
GPRS Performance
Verification

Training
DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
Network Integration Test

When a site is integrated to BSC it is tested


• Call set up test
• Timeslot test, forced call test

* TEMS Pocket is the preferred tool for Network Integration Test


DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
Initial Tuning

• Produce Coverage Plot


• Identify Coverage Holes
• Identify Interference Area
• Optimize Neighbor Relations
• Find Hardware/Installation Problems
• Verify Parameter Setting
DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
GPRS Performance Verification

• Application Performance Test


• WWW, FTP, WAP etc.
• Mobility Test
• Cell Reselection, RA Update
OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT
PHASE
Traditional Optimization

• Investigate & Trouble-shooting Specific Areas


• Neighbor Relation Optimization
• Coverage Issues
OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT
PHASE
Network Feature Optimization

Parameter Settings:
• MS, BTS Power Control
• HCS
• Idle Mode Behavior
• Locating Algorithm
• Frequency Hopping
• Intra-cell Handover
OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT
PHASE
Verification of Network Changes

Did a certain change in the network give desired results?


• New coverage area?
• Less interference?
• Better speech quality?
• Is handover possible?
TEMS Measurement & Analyzing
Process

? Preparations Collect Data Analyze Report

Clear objective Check equipment Save logfile Find problem Give answer
areas to objective
Why should this Get input files Take notes
measurement be Find solutions
Prepare route Monitor
done
External Antenna?

Changes in What should be


Network changed?
Measurement Will Depend on
Objective
? Preparations
Possible Objectives

Clear objective Check equipment • Coverage analysis


Why should this
measurement be
Get input files
• Trouble shooting
Prepare route
done
External antenna? • Scanning
• Verify network changes
Performing Measurements with
Drive Test
• Large areas
TEMS
• Specific areas
Walk Test
Scanning
Drive Test
- Large area
INPUT
INPUT MEASUREMENT OUTPUT

Acceptance Drive defined Plots & Report


route/area
New sites on air - Signal Strength
Record Logfile
Frequency Re-plan - Quality
Long / Short calls
BSC Re-homing Trouble Report /
Assure no data loss
Area for further
investigation
Drive Test
- Specific area
INPUT Measurement OUTPUT

Statistics Manipulate Trouble Report

Customer complain - Forced handover - Identified problem

Large area drive test - Lock on to Frequency - Solution


Trouble Report - Layer 3 messages
Analysis on-spot
Rectify & Verify on-spot
Walk Test

INPUT Measurement OUTPUT

Statistics Add file marks (GPS) Trouble Report


Customer complain Scanning Planning Report
Micro cell planning - Antenna location
Indoor cell planning - Frequency
- HCS setting

* TEMS Light is the preferred tool for indoor cell planning


Scanning
INPUT Measurement OUTPUT

Finding a new TEMS INV in Received SS on


frequency scanning mode different ARFCN
Set ARFCN to scan plot
Area Network
Scanning New frequency
Analyzing Measurements
Post-Processing TEMS Logfiles
Geographical
TEMS Presentation
Logfiles

Statistics
Report

Analysis
Problem Cases
Low Signal Strength
• Interference
• Handover
• Call Setup Failure
• Dropped Call
• Misc.
Signal Strength Case
TEMS
INPUT Logfiles

Large area DT Post-Processing

Specific area DT Analysis

• Identify areas with low signal strength e.g. SS < -100dBm (outdoor)
• Look at RxLev distribution (for acceptance)
• Compare with design level or new requirements
Signal Strength Case
– Possible Reasons
• Shadowed Antenna
• Antenna Direction
• Antenna Height / down tilt
• Output Power
• Missing Neighbor Relation
• Site Location
• Faulty Hardware e.g. antenna & TMA
• Cell is down
Signal Strength Case
– Analysis
Shadowed Antenna Output Power Faulty Hardware

Visit site Check output power Check alarm & BTS Error
Check antenna installation Parameters log

Is there a better antenna BSPWRT - NON BCCH FREQ Visit site


position at same site? BSPWRB - BCCH FREQ

Height/down Tilt Missing Neighbor Site Location

Add reduce down tilt? Is the call dragged? Possible to move site?
Can antenna be placed Is low SS due to missing New antenna location at
lower or higher to give neighbor relations same site? Is it necessary to
better coverage? expand and build a new
site?
Signal Strength Case
– Possible Solutions
• Change parameter BSPWR , BSPWRT.
• Add neighbor relation.
• Physical changes:
• Antenna direction
• Antenna height, tilt or position
• New site as last option.
Interference Case
TEMS
INPUT Logfiles

Large area DT Post-Processing

Specific area DT Analysis

Identify areas with Rxqual > 5


Identify source using Map and STS
New drive test around problem area?
Interference Case
– Logfile analysis
From logfile & map:
What channel group suffer from interference? HOP or Non HOP?
• Check Current channel information in TEMS INV, hopping
channel and hopping frequency.
Where does the interference come from? Cell name?
• Study map and logfile, look for co-channel or adjacent channel
interference.
Does the interference lead to lower SQI?
• Look at SQI measurement during high RxQual.
Use STS & RNO to assist analysis.
Types of Interference
• Co - Channel interference
• Adjacent Interference

BCCH 600 CASE 1


BCCH 595

CASE 2 High site

BCCH 590
BCCH 590

BCCH 590
BCCH 590
Interference Case
– Possible Reasons
• Poor frequency plan
• No dominant cell --> low C/I ---> increased Rxqual
• Frequency Hopping is off
• External interference e.g. jammer

Example of high Rxqual


due to low Signal Strength
Interference Case
– Possible solutions
• Enable Frequency Hopping or add frequencies to
Hopping group.
• Enable BTS Power Control, MS power control and
make it less aggressive.
• Change frequency of interferer or interfered cell:
– Possible to find new frequency by using TEMS
Scanning.
• Down tilt or change antenna of interferer.
Handover Case
INPUT

Large area DT Post-Processing

Specific area DT Analysis

Look for:

Repeated handover (Ping Pong)


Repeated Intra-cell handover
Handover failure,
Unrealistic handover
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
- Examples
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
- Possible Reason 1

Merry-go-round Handover, Offset >


Hysterisis
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
- Possible Reason 2
• Offset only in one direction e.g A-B for Inter
BSC relation
BSC 1 BSC 2
BSC BSC

CELL A CELL B

A -> B OFFSET = -5dB No B -> A OFFSET


Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
– Other Possible Reasons
No dominant Server

• No dominant server
• Locating penalty settings
e.g. PSSBQ, PTIMBQ
• Too small hysterisis
setting
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
– Possible Solutions
Antenna direction

Antenna Tilts

Plan for new site

Change Locating Parameter e.g.


KHYST or LHYST
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)
– Possible Solution
Change Parameter, KHYST or LHYST

Hysterisis
CELL A CELL B

Handover
From A to B
Handover Case
– Handover Reversion

Check layer 3 message


Handover command BSC correct?
Check reason for handover SS, RXQUAL
Target cell?
Handover Reversion
– Common Reason
Duplicates of BSIC BCCH combinations in neighboring list

Handover command?
BSC

610_12
606_33
610_31 610_31
Serving cell
Neighbor cell 2
Neighbor cell 1
608_32
608_32
Road
Handover Reversion
– Other Reasons
Uplink interference in target cell
Downlink interference at MS

Solutions
Interference Investigation
• MRR
• Statistics
• Scanning
Handover Case
– Repeated Intra-cell Handover
Possible Reasons
Wrong intra-cell handover settings
External Uplink Interference

Possible Solutions
Consider to change parameters:
• SSOFFSETUL, SSOFFSETDL
• QOFFSETUL, QOFFSETDL
A wrong setting of parameters will cause “unnecessary” IHO
Turn off Intra-cell Handover?
Handover Case
– Unrealistic Handover
Unrealistic Handover
– Reason & Solution
Possible Reasons
Wrong locating settings, in Serving or Target cell
Note: Could be on purpose e.g. Dual Band network with HCS

Solution
• Fix locating settings e.g. MSRXSUFF, BSRXSUFF
Call Setup Failure
Call Setup Failure
– Input Activities, Initial Tuning
Activities
Measurement Type
•Large Area Drive Test
Initial Tuning
•Short Call Sequences
(Acceptance Test)

Troubleshooting Post-Processing Output


(Customer •Statistics Report
complaint etc.) •Geographical Report
showing failure positions
Call Setup Failure
– Input Activities, Troubleshooting
Input Activities
Measurement Type
•Small Area Drive Test
Initial Tuning •Lock on problem cell’s BCCH
(Acceptance Test) •Force handover to the cell

Troubleshooting Post-Processing Output


(Customer •Geographical Report (if
complaint etc.) necessary)
Call Setup Failure Analysis
- Initial Tuning Scenario
• Check the TEMS statistics report (Blocked Call)
if there is Call Setup Failure.
• If yes, identify the problem cells and which
logfile from geographical report.
• Replay the logfile and jump to the Blocked Call
event.
• Check if there is any successful call setup to the
problem cell.
Call Setup Failure Analysis
- Initial Tuning Scenario cont.
• Review the layer 3 messages to check at which
sequence the failure occur (random access,
SDCCH, TCH assignment etc.).
• Check STS report on the problem cell. Is there
any traffic (SDCCH & TCH) in the cell, SDCCH
& TCH seizures, congestion etc.
• Check fault report & CDD configuration.
Call Setup Failure Analysis
- Troubleshooting Scenario
• Before performing drive test, check STS report &
fault report.
• If can not identify the problem, perform drive
test.
• During measurement, lock the BCCH of the
problem cell.
• Review the layer 3 messages to check at which
sequence the failure occur (random access,
Call Setup Failure Analysis
- Possible reasons with ranking
• Low Signal Strength
• Interference
• High Congestion on SDCCH
• High Congestion on TCH
• Transmission Fault
• Faulty TRU/Hardware
• Central Processor Overload
• Software File Congestion
Call Setup Failure Analysis
- Possible solutions
• Low signal strength  Signal strength analysis.
• Interference  Interference analysis.
• High Congestion on SDCCH:
Define more SDCCHs.
Activate adaptive configuration of logical channel
feature and immediate assignment to TCH.
• High Congestion on TCH:
Add capacity/Tune coverage array.
Activate assignment to worse cell.
Failed Call Setup (Blocked Call)
Example

Multiple Channel Requests.


Successful Random Access after the
third try.
 Congestion in SDCCH.
Dropped Call Case
- Input
• Statistics Report
• Note from drive test.
Dropped Call Case
- Analysis
• From plot, identify which & where in logfile
the dropped call occurs.
• In the log file, Jump the drop call event.
• Check if there is a disrupt in the recording. If
yes  could be a false drop due to TEMS
mobile disconnection during recording!!!
Dropped Call Case
- Analysis (cont)
• Check the Radio environment just before drop:
– If High Rxqual for a longer period of time and
RLINKT expire  Interference problem.
– If Low SS DL, SSDL < MSSENS ( -104dBm)  low
signal strength problem.
– If TA > 63  too far from the cell.
• If DL radio is good, check the TX power. If
there is MS power down regulation when the
MS is close to the cell. If full power  suspect
uplink interference or antenna, TMA problem.
Miscellaneous Case 1
From TEMS Logfile
• Good Signal strength DL, Good Rxqual DL
• No call set up possible unless very close to site = high SS
• Dropped call when SS < approx. -75dBm

Analysis
• Since DL SS & Rxqual is good
Suspect UL problems e.g. external uplink interference

Conclusion
TMA power turned off
Miscellaneous Case 2
From TEMS Logfile
• TCH has lower Signal strength than BCCH (Own BCCH included in
BA-list)
• BTS power control = OFF

Conclusion
Antenna cable for TCH is swapped between sectors (CDU-A)
SEKTOR C
Configuration/cell
SEKTOR A
TCH
TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

CHG1
SDCCH\8
BCCH

CHG0
TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

SEKTOR B
Miscellaneous Case 3
From TEMS Logfile
• Fail to perform Call Setup

Analysis
• Check if any success call setup to the same cell  No
• Check if handover is possible  Yes
• Suspected wrong cell definition in MSC but Cell is properly
defined in MCS and LA

Conclusion
• Corrupted block in MSC
GPRS Verification &
Optimization
with TEMS Investigation
GPRS Measurement Activities
• GPRS Performance Prediction
• GPRS Field Measurement
GPRS Performance Prediction
- Overview
• GPRS RNAP Service uses TEMS Inv to predict
following performance:
– Throughput
– Cell Reselection & Routing Area Update
GPRS Throughput Prediction
• Perform Throughput prediction for each
coding scheme
Cell Reselection Prediction
• Dedicated mode drive
test

HO types
LA HO (10)
HO int. (220)
LA HO at BQ (1)
HO int. at BQ (11)
BSC3 serving
Other BSC
Cell Reselection Prediction
• BCCH Scanning
• Simulate the cell update with different CRH
values CRH = 4 dB CRH = 8 dB

CRH # HO
0 365
2 246
4 211
6 178
8 156
10 147
12 138
14 130
GPRS Field Measurement
- Procedure
Set up files

? Preparations Cell definitions

TEMS,
IP Sniffers GIMS

Excel

Mapinfo Dig maps

Charts / Tables Graphical


presentation of route

Report
GPRS Field Measurement
- Type of Measurements
• Application Performance Test
– Ping
– WWW
– FTP
– WAP
• Mobility Performance Investigation
– Cell Reselection
– RA Update
GPRS Field Measurement
- Application Performance Test
• Attached performance
– Attached Time = Attach Complete msg – Attach
Request msg
– Attach Success Rate
• PDP context activation performance
– PDP context activation = Activate PDP Context
Accept msg – Activate PDP context request
• Throughput on RLC level

GPRS Application Test Tools
• General
– Windump, Commview, Ethereal, Protocol Analyser
for Gb
• PING
– MS DOS ping command
• WWW
– IE, Netscape
• FTP
– DOS FTP, WS_FTP, TEMS built in sequence
GPRS Field Measurement
- Mobility Performance
Investigation
• Number of Cell Reselection & RA Update
• TCP Outage Time
• Cell Reselection Failure
Mobility test CRH = 4, CRO = 4
Cell Reselection. Sample Report
Routing Area Time Cell Target Reselection Result Comments
Cell time
BSC1 16:30:42 D0241A D0241C 2s OK NA
BSC1 16:33:18 D0241B D0242A 2s OK NA
BSC1 16:35:04 D0242A D0248C 21 s OK This cell reselection was
made to a cell located quite
far away (not the closest),
thus the RxLev was quite
bad!
BSC1 16:37:44 D0244B D0248C -- NA No throughput before or
after the cell reselection.
This is due to that the cell
DF0242B were halted by
some reason!
BSC1 16:38:11 D0248C D0244B -- Failed The through put was never
resumed and the FTP
connection was aborted by
the ftp-server!