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It is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It is a systematic procedure for securing and reporting information defining a specific job. It is a process of data collection.

Job analysis includes the following:

Job identification: its title, subtitle, code number.
Duties and responsibilities of workers. Working conditions and working hours.

Physical characteristics needed for job.

Terms of employment. How the job is needed to perform. Job relationship.

Purpose and uses:

Manpower planning.
Recruitment selection and placement. Training and development.

Organization audit.
Job evaluation. Career planning. Health and safety.

Manpower planning:
It helps in determining the demands of job in the form

of responsibilities and duties. It helps in determining the number and kind of jobs.

Recruitment selection and placement:

Job analysis picturizes the responsibilities, duties, task

etc. for which the people are required and thus provides a realistic basis or hiring, training, placement, transfer and promotion of personnel.

Training and development:

Training and development are necessary for personnel

working in the organization and information related to this is provided by job analysis.

Organization audit:
Job analysis provides job information which revels

whether the organization is poorly or fairly managed in terms of the factor affecting job design.

Job evaluation and career planning:

Job evaluation aims at determining the relative worth

or value of various jobs. As the job analysis provides the information regarding promotional career opportunities. Thus employees can plan career development.

Health and safety:

Job analysis also provides the information regarding

environment where the job is to be performed. And also about the unhealthy environment factors like heat, dust, noise etc.


Contents of job analysis:

Job description: Job specification: .
It is used to selecting a person matching with job to perform the job successfully.

The document which

discloses the complete information of the activities of the job, describes the main features of the job and qualifications needed for the job.


Job description consist of:

Job identification like job title, location, job codes,

departments etc. Job summary: it is brief job contents. Relation to other jobs. Machines tools and equipments used. Condition of work, location of work, speed, accuracy, health hazards etc. Accidental hazards. Material adforms used.

Job specification consist of:

Experience. Training.

Physical efforts and skills. Responsibilities and communication skills. Emotional characteristics.


Sources of job analysis

The Supervisor and Foremen who supervise or inspect

the job. The employees who ultimately perform the job. The external observers who are specially involved to observe the job of the employees.


Process of job analysis

Proper data collection: Collecting of facts & figures,to collect information regarding job title. 2. Filling of job description: Job analysis by filling the fixed format. 3. Proper data collection : Having the techniques of job analysis further explained.


Techniques of job analysis:

Personal observation methods.
Questionnaire method. Interview method.

Maintenance of log records.


Personal observation method:

By the personal observation of the existing employees the

analyst can get the information related to materials equipments used, working, conditions and hazards. The observable should involve some degree of movement on the part of job holder. Advantages: 1.The first hand knowledge can be obtained. Disadvantages: 1. Presence of observer may affect the working of job holder.


Questionnaire method:
in this method properly drafted and structured

questionnaire is prepared and sent to job holders for completion. Items are as follows: 1. Information input: from where and how workers get information. 2. mental process: reasoning and other processes that workers use. 3. Work input: physical activities and tools used. 4. Relationship: what types of contacts are maintained with other peoples.

Interview method:
Here the analyst can held the personal interviews with the

employees. Some suggestions to make analyst task simple: 1. Show a sincere interest in the worker and the job. 2. Do not try to tell the employee how to do this job. 3. Do not confuse the work with the workers. 4. Try to talk in their own languages. 5. Verify the job information obtained.


Maintenance of log records:

By this method a detailed description can be obtained

from the job holder and the supervisor who maintains a daily diary record of duties mentioning the time at which each task was started and finished.


Preparation of job specification: It is the statement of minimum acceptable human quality necessary to perform a job properly. 2. Writing the report: job analyst submits the report to human resource manager who discusses this with top management for suggestions and comments.