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METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)

Consider together because all the equipment including power source is the same except the shielding gas and consumable (filler wires) MIG/MAG welding process uses a bare wire consumable electrode to provide the arc and weld metal. The wire is continuously fed from a coil through welding gun. The process is fluxless, So that it uses shielding gas to avoid atmospheric contamination. Example: some materials, argon is an efficient shielding gas (being inert) because it does not chemically react with weld metal. When an inert gas is used for shielding the welding process, its known as metal inert gas (MIG).

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
SHIELDING GAS 1.Provide suitable ionizable atmosphere for the electric arc. 2.Protect the weld pool from atmospheric contamination.

Example Gases and applications for m.i.g/m.a.g welding Gas


Pure argon

Application Example
Aluminium,copper,9% nickel steel

Argon + 1% to 5% oxygen CO2 (carbon dioxide) Argon +5% to 25% CO2 Argon + 5% hydrogen Argon + 15% nitrogen 75% helium + 25% argon 75% helium + 25% argon + Co2 trace

Stainless Steel C steel up to 0.4% C,low alloy steel Carbon and Low alloy Steel Nickel and its alloys Copper and its alloys Aluminium and Copper Austenitic stainless steel

Note: A H2 trace may be added to most gases to increase arc

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
Different shielding gas will change the electrical properties of the arc. This will influence metal transfer properties, heat input, penetration and weld profile characteristic. Shielding gas selected will depend on the material to be weld, filler wire and required characteristic of the weld. MATERIAL SHIELDING GAS Example :

CARBON STEEL

Pure Argon

CO2

Cannot be transferred through pure argon and cause very irregular weld profile with poor fusion

Can be transferred through co2 because it active gas and chemically react with the weld pool to produce an oxide.

The solid wire consumable used for mig/mag welding should conform to BS EN ISO 14341:2008 Filler rods and wires for gas shielded arc welding or other agreed specification. To avoid porosity problem during welding carbon steel with mag process,fully

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
METAL TRANSFER MODES Metal transfer for MIG/MAG welding may be achived in one of four ways: 1.Spray of free flight transfer 2.Dip transfer (semi-short circuiting arc) 3.Globular transfer 4.Pulsed transfer

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
SPRAY OR FREE FLIGHT TRANSFER Used for high welding current (27-45 v) Weld metal transfers across the arc in the form of a fine spray This type of transfer gives high deposition rates and deep penetration welds. Spray transfer mode is suited to thick material. Only used in the flat or horizontal welding positions for the light alloy.

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
Dip transfer (semi short circuiting arc or short arc) Low amperage and low arc volts are required so that the consumable wire electrode touches the weld pool and short circuit. (15-22v) Followed by a short, rapid rise in current which causes the tip of the wire to melt off creating and arc which gradually reduces in length until it short circuits again and the process is repeated. This transfer mode produce a relative cool arc and can be used on thinner section for all position welding. Typically used when welding a steel single vee joint open root with the mag process

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
Globular transfer (mixed arc) curs in the intermediate range between spray and dip transfer (23-26v) Has no manual application area in mig/mag welding Only limited success on mechanized and automatic set-ups Unstable and lead to high level of spatter

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
Pulse Transfer A modified form of spray transfer Effectively use both the dip and spray transfer modes in one operation Considered to be the most effective and the most usual transfer used Pulses of high power spray transfer current are superimposed over a constant low semi-short circuiting background mode Results in less heat compared to true spray transfer but is greater than with dip transfer Main advantages : poor fusion of root runs is virtually eliminated : regular penetration, no spatter, good profile, and high quality weld

METAL INERT GAS AND METAL ACTIVE GAS WELDING (MIG AND MAG WELDING)
Advantages Minimal wastage of consumable electrode No frequent changing of consumable electrode Little or no interpass cleaning required (no slag produced) Heavier weld beads are produced Faster welding process Low hydrogen process pre heat may no be required

Disadvantages Increase of porosity due to displacement of the gas shield More maintenance of plant involved High risk of lack of fusion