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INTRODUCTION

People spend most of their life in some organization or the other. Right from this college, to the mode of transport you used to come here, to the food you have, we come across thousands of organizations on a regular basis. Organizations are basically places where there is a constant interaction between people, structures and technology.

Organizations are strategies created to bring order to a concrete effort for the achievement of certain objectives and goals. Since these objectives cannot be achieved by an individual or a small group, some concepts like division of labor and hierarchy of authority have been formulated.

Manager: Someone who gets things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals.

Organization: A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals and has formal and informal relations with each other.

Behavior is a function of the person and the environment, or B = f (P, E).

Like other inputs into an enterprise, the human beings employed by that enterprise constitute a resource -- in this case, a human resource (HR). Because HR is considered as one of the most important resources, it needs special attention. Organizational Behavior will basically focus on this resource HR.

WHAT IS ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?


. . . a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness.

Goals of Organizational Behaviour


Understand organizational events

Organizational Behaviour Research Influence organizational events

Predict organizational events

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior People Individuals Groups

Environment Government Competition Societal pressure

Structure Jobs Relationships

Organizational Behavior

Technology Machinery Computer hardware ,software

Figure 1.1 What is Organizational Behavior?

Insert Figure 1.1 here

e.g., Selection Systems e.g., Groupthink e.g., Personality

Organizational Level Group Level Individual Level

Components of Organizational Behavior


Understanding organizational behavior requires studying

Individuals in Organizations

Group and Team Processes

Organizational Processes

Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour:


The Individual - working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organisational goals. The Group - formal and informal. Understanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour. The Organisation - impact of organisation structure and design, and patterns of management, on behaviour. The Environment - technological and scientific development, economic activity, governmental actions.

Basic OB Model,

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Contributing disciplines to organization al behavior.

CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD


Psycholo gy
Anthropology Social Psycholog y

Sociolog y

Political Scienc e

PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology is a science, an academic, and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of human or animal mental functions and behaviours. It involves:

COMPONENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY
LEARNING MOTIVATION PERSONALITY EMOTION PERCEPTION TRAINING LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS JOB SATISFACTION INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING PERFOMANCE APPRAISAL

ATTITUDE MEASURMENT EMPLOYEE SELECTION


WORK DESIGN WORK STRESS

SOCIOLOGY
Sociology is the study of society. It is a social sciencea term with which it is sometimes synonymousthat uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge about human social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare.

SOCIOLOGY

Group Dynamics Work Teams Communication Power Integrating Behavior

Formal Organization Organization Technique Organization Change Organization Culture

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Social psychology is the study of the relations between people and groups. Scholars in this interdisciplinary area are typically either psychologists or sociologists, though all social psychologists employ both the individual and the group as their units of analysis.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Behavior Change Attitude Change Communication Group Processes Group Decision Making

ANTHROPOLOGY

The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities is known as Anthropology

ANTHROPOLOGY

Comparative Values Comparative attitude Cross Cultural Analysis

Organizational Culture Organizational Environment

POLITICAL SCIENCE
Political science is a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. In other words, it is the study of behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Conflict Intraorganizational Politics Power

AT A GLANCE
Behavioural science

Contribution
Learning Motivation Perception Training Leadership effectiveness Job satisfaction Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude measurement Employee selection Work design Work stress Group dynamics Work teams Communication Power Conflict Intergroup behaviour Formal organization theory Organizational technology Organizational change Organizational culture Behavioural change Attitude change Communication Group processes Group decision making Comparative values Comparative attitudes Cross-cultural analysis

Unit of analysis

Output

Psychology

Individual

Sociology

Group

Study of Organizational Behaviour

Social psychology

Organization system

Anthropology Organizational culture Organizational environment Political science Conflict Intraorganizational politics Power

Challenges for Organizational Behavior

1: Changing Social/ Cultural


Environment

2: Evolving Global Environment 3: Advancing Information Technology 4: Shifting Work/ Employment

Relationships

Challenges for Organizational Behavior

Changing Social/ Cultural Environment


National culture Organizational ethics and well-being
Social responsibility

Diverse work force

Figure 1.6 Diversity

Challenges for Organizational Behavior

Evolving Global Environment


Understanding Global Differences

Global learning

Challenges for Organizational Behavior

Advancing Information Technology


Information Knowledge Information Technology Organizational Learning Intranets Creativity Innovation

Challenges for Organizational Behavior

Shifting Work/ Employment


Relationships
Downsizing Empowerment and Self-Managed Teams Contingent Workers Outsourcing

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