Anda di halaman 1dari 32

SUBMITTED TO : MR.DEVENDRA ASST.POFESSER ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG.

SUMMITTED BY: GAUTAM BUDH HEMANT MEENA LAKHMI CHAND

INTRODUCTION
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from house hold sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a treated effluent and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment.

DESIGN PERIOD:
A sewerage scheme involves the laying of underground sewer pipes and construction of costly treatment units, which cannot be replaced or increased in their capacities easily or conveniently at a later date. In order to avoid such complications, the future expansions of the city and consequent increase in the sewage quantity should be forecasted to serve the community satisfactorily for a reasonable year. The future period for which the provision is made in designing the capacities of various components of the sewerage is known as design period. This sewage treatment plant is designed for 30 years.

Population forecast
Year populatio Increment per Incrementa % increment per decade n decade l increase 198000 264393 329830 +66393 +65437 -956 (66393 /198000)100=33.5 (65437 /264393)100=24.75 1951 1961 1971

1981
1991 2001 2011

441552
509510 714077 873725

+111742
+97958 +204597 +159648

+46285
-43764 +136639 -44949

(111742 /329830)100=3.56
(97958 /441552)100=22.18 (204597 /509510)100=40.15 (159648 /714077)100=22.35

Net value
Average

+675755
112625.8333

+93255
18651

146.49
24.41

Population for the year 2021

= population of 2011+ avg. increment per decade + avg. incremental increase


= 873725 + 112625.83+18651 = 1005001.83

Population for the year 2031


=1005001.83 +112625.83+18651 =1136278.66 Population for the year 2041

=1136278.66+112625.83+18651 = 1267555.5

CALCULATION OF SEWAGE GENERATION


Ultimate design period = 30 years Forecasted population at 2041 = 1267555.5 Per Capita Water Supply = 135 lpcd Avg. water supply per day =1267555.5 135= 171119992.5= 171.1 MLD Avg. sewage generation per day = 80% of supplied water = 0.8 171.1 = 136.88 MLD

In cumec, Avg. sewage generation per day =(136.88 1000)/(24 60 60)=1.58 Avg. discharge = 1.58 cumec Max. discharge = 3 x avg. discharge = 3 x 1.58 = 4.74 cumec

FLOW DIAGARME OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

RECEIVING CHAMBER

Receiving chamber is the structure to receive the raw

sewage collected through Under Ground Sewage System from the city. It is a rectangular shape tank constructed at the entrance of the sewage treatment plant. The main sewer pipe is directly connected with this tank

DESIGN OF RECEIVING CHAMBER


Design flow = 4.74 cumec

Detention time = 60 sec


Volume required = flow X detention time Vrqd = 284.4 m3 Provide, depth = 3m Area = 94.8 m2 Length: Breadth = 2:1 L x B = 2B x B =2B2 = 94.8 B =6.88 6.9 m L = 13.7713.8m

= 4.74 x 60

CHECK FOR DESING FOR RECIVING CHAMBER

Volume designed = 3 x 6.9 x13.8

Vdes = 285.66 m2
Vreq = 284.44 m3 Vdes > Vreq

RECEIVING CHAMBER
Receiving chamber is designed for the size of 13.8m X 6.9m X 3m (SWD) + 0.5 (FB)

SCREENING
Screening is the very first operation carried out at a sewage treatment plant and consists of passing the raw sewage through different types of screens so as to trap and remove the floating matter such as tree leaves, paper, gravel, timber pieces, rags, fibre, tampons, cans, and kitchen refuse etc.It is used to 1 To protect the pumps and other equipments from the possible damages due to floating matter. 2 To remove the major floating matters from the raw sewage in a simple manner before it reaches into the complex high energy required process

DESIGN OF COARSE SCREEN


Peak discharge of sewage = 4.74 m3/s Assume the velocity at average flow is not allowed to exceed 0.8 m/s The net area screen opening required = 5.925m2 Clear opening between bars = 30 mm = .03 m Using rectangular steel bars in the screen, having 1 cm width, and placed at 3 cm clear spacing, we have the gross area of screen required = (5.9254) /3 =7.9 m2

Assuming that screen bars are placed at 60 to the horizontal, we have the gross area of screen needed= 7.9/sin600= 9.122 m2 Hence a coarse screen of 9.122 m2 area is required. No. of clear opening = 9.122/.03 = 305 Width of channel = (30530)+(30610) =12210 mm =12.21 m Provide width of channel =12.3 m Coarse screen channel is designed for the size of 12.3m .8 m(swd) + .5 m (fb)

COARSE SCREEN

FINE SCREEN DESIGN


Design flow = 4.74 cumec At avg. flow design velocity = 0.8 m/s Area required = 4.74/.8 = 5.925 m2 SWD provided = 0.7 m At peak design velocity = 1.6 m/s Assuming the screen bars are placed at 40 to the horizontal. Clear area = 4.74/ (1.6sin40) = 4.6 m2

Clear opening = 8 mm = 0.008 m Net clear width of channel = 1.41 m No. of clear openings = 4.6/.008 =575 No. of bars = 576 Size of the bars = 50mm x 10 mm Width of channel = (575 x 8) + (576 x 10) = 10360 mm =10.36 m Fine screen is designed for the size of 10.36 m X 0.8 m (SWD) + 0.5 m (FB)

FINE SCREEN

GRIT CHAMBER
Grit removal basins are the sedimentation basins placed in front of the fine screen to remove the inorganic particles having specific gravity of 2.65 such as sand, gravel, grit, egg shells and other non-putrescible materials that may clog channels or damage pumps due to abrasion and to prevent their accumulation in sludge digesters. The grit chamber is designed to scour the lighter organic particles while the heavier grit particles remain settled. Here the horizontal flow type grit chamber is designed to give a horizontal straight line flow velocity, which is kept constant over varying discharge.

DESIGN OF GRIT CHAMBER


Peak flow of sewage = 4.74 m3/s Assume average liquid detention period = 3min. =180 s So Aerated volume = 4.74 x 180

= 853.2 m3 In order to drain the channel periodically for routine cleaning and maintenance two chambers are used. Therefore volume of one aerated chamber = 853.2 / 2=426.6 m3 Assume depth of 3m and Width to depth ratio 2:1 Width of the channel = 2 x 3 = 6 m So Length of the channel = 426.6 / (3 x 6) = 23.7 m Increase the length by about 20% to account for inlet and outlet Provide length = 23.7 x 1.2 m = 28.44 Grit chamber is designed for the size of 28.44m X6m X 3m

GRIT CHAMBER

SKIMMING TANK
Skimming tanks are the tanks removing oils and grease from the sewage constructed before the sedimentation tanks. Municipal raw sewage contains oils, fats, waxes, soaps, fatty acids etc. The greasy and oily matter may form unsightly and odorous scum on the surface of settling tanks or may interfere with the activated sludge process. In skimming tank air is blown along with chlorine gas by air diffuser placed at the bottom of the tank. The rising air tends to coagulate and solidify the grease and cause it to rise to the top of the tank whereas chlorine destroys the protective colloidal effect of protein, which holds the grease in emulsified form. The greasy materials are collected from the top of the tank and the collected are skimmed of specially designed mechanical equipments.

DESIGN OF SKIMMING TANK


The surface area required for the tank A =( 0.00622 q) / Vr m2 Where q = rate of flow sewage in m3/day Vr = minimum rising velocity of the oily material to be removed in m/min = .25 m /minute in most cases q = 4.74 x 60 x 60 x24 = 410400 m3/day Vr = 0.25 m/min = 0.25 x 60 x 24 = 360 m/day

A = (6.22 X 10-3 X 410400) / 360 A =7.09 m2 Provide the depth of the skimming tank is 3m. The length breadth ratio is 1.5: 1 Therefore L = 1.5 B L x B = 1.5B2 Therefore B= 2.17m L = 3.26 m Skimming tank is designed for the size of 3.26m X 2.17m X 3m + 0.5m (FB)

SKIMMING TANK

PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION TANK


Primary sedimentation tank is the settling tank constructed next to skimming tank to remove the organic solids which are too heavy to be removed i.e. the particles having lesser size of 0.2 mm and specific gravity of 2.65. The designed tank is circular type which makes settling by allowing radial flow. These are fabricated using carbon steel with epoxy lining on the inside and epoxy coating on the outside. Built on the concept of inclined plate clarification, these clarifiers use gravity in conjunction with the projected settling area so as to effect a fairly high percentage of removal of suspended solids as 60 to 65% of the suspended solids and 30 to 35% of the BOD from the sewage.

DESIGN OF SEDIMENTATION TANK


Max. quantity sewage = 136.88 MLD. It is intended to remove 60% to 70% of the organic particles of size larger then .06mm. The settling velocity for such particals is about 0.3 mm/sec. or 1.2 m/hr For affecting settlement we have Q / (BL) = (100/70)1.2 m/hr ( for affecting 70% removel ) Or Q / (BL) = 1.7 m/hr Or Q / (BL) = 1.7 M3/M2 plan area /hr = 1700 liter /m2 of plan area / hr . = 170024 liters/m2/day = 40800 liters /m2/day

Similarly, for affecting 60 % removel, it can be calculated that Q / (BL) = 48,000 L/m 2/day Hence , surface loading adopted is about 40,000 L/m2/day to 50,000 L/m2/day. Assuming the normal detention period for such cases as 2 hr , and surface loading as 40,000 liters /sq.m/day ; we have The quantity of sewage to be treated per 2 hours = 136.88 m.liters (2/24 ) = 11.40 m.liters = 11400 m3 So capacity of tank = 11400 m3

Now . surface loading = (Q/surface area of tank ) = (Q4) / (d2 ) 40,000 = ( 136.881064)/( d2 ) Where d is dia . of pipe d = 66.07 m Say d =67 m Now effective depth of tank = (capacity/ area of X-section )= (114004) / ( 6767) = 3.23 m Say 3.3 m Hence , use a settling tank with 67 m dia. And 3.3 m water depth (with free board of 0.5 m extra depth.) Primary sedimentation tank is designed for the dimension of 67 m (dia.) X 3.3 m (depth) + 0.5 (FB)