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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Kepentingan Program Memperkasakan Sekolah Kebangsaan (PMSK)


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Rasional
Selaras dengan Misi Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia untuk meningkatkan akses, ekuiti, kualiti dan kecekapan serta keberkesanan pengurusan pendidikan. Maka program memperkasakan sekolah adalah menjadi agenda utama Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (Rujuk Perutusan Tahun Baru YB. Menteri Pelajaran pada 4 Januari 2005). Selaras dengan Misi negara untuk meningkatkan martabat pendidikan setaraf kelas dunia (World Class Education), program memperkasakan sekolah adalah bersesuaian dengan dapatan-dapatan kajian para sarjana dalam bidang pengurusan dan kepimpinan pendidikan.

Matlamat PMSK
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Tujuan utama program memperkasakan sekolah adalah untuk membolehkan sekolah-sekolah mencapai serta mengekalkan keberkesanan pada tahap tertinggi yang boleh (highest possible level of effectiveness) dalam menepati keperluan-keperluan para pelajar masa kini. Program memperkasakan sekolah ini akan menekankan kepada, keberkesanan sekolah (school Effectiveness),kemajuan sekolah (school improvement), peningkatan kualiti (quality enhancement), pembangunan staf (staff development), perkongsian (partnership), keberkesanan pengurusan sumber, dan pengurusan perubahan (management of change).

INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti Penambahbaikan yang menyeluruh

Analisis Persekitaran

Menilai

Visi, Misi & Matlamat

Mereka bentuk & Membina

Melaksana

KANDUNGAN
Pengenalan: Kepentingan program memperkasakan sekolah dalam usaha untuk merealisasikan Misi Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia dan Negara. Topik 01: Mengenal pasti beberapa pendekatan untuk memperkasakan sekolah dalam bidang pengurusan dan kepimpinan sekolah/pendidikan dan pengenalan kepada konsep pengurusan strategik. Topik 02: Teras utama: Mandat, Misi, Visi dan matlamat strategik. Topik 03: Analisis Persekitaran (Penilaian semula pengurusan dan kepimpinan sekolah). Topik 04: Merekabentuk dan membina perancangan bagi memperkasakan sekolah. Topik 05: Pelaksanaan perancangan strategik bagi memperkasakan sekolah. Topik 06: Penilaian terhadap pelaksanaan perancangan memperkasakan sekolah.
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Apakah itu Pengurusan?


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Pengurusan ialah satu proses sosial dibentuk untuk mendapatkan kerjasama, penyertaan dan penglibatan ahli-ahli dalam sesebuah organisasi untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat atau objektif yang paling berkesan (Drucker, 1972)

Apakah itu Strategi?


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Strategi- perkataan Latin: Strategos (the art of generalship, or how to be an effective general. Sesuatu proses itu strategik apabila ia melibatkan choosing how best to respond to circumstances of a dynamic and sometimes hostile environment Being strategic requires recognising the choices and committing to one set of responses instead of another(Allison &Kaye, 97) 7

INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Strategy take account of: long-term intentions and aspirations the external environment the internal strengths of an organization the prevailing organizational culture expectations of stakeholders likely future resources

4 SOALAN STRATEGIK
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Dimana kita sekarang?


STATUS QUO

Bagaimana sampai ke tujuan?


PELAN / STRATEGI

Ke mana hendak menuju?


OBJEKTIF

Bagaimana kita tahu kita capai?


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PENGURUSAN STRATEGIK
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

THE PROCESS OF PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING STRATEGY. It involves strategic analysis, strategic choice and strategic implementation (Fidler, 2002)

St. Planning: process involved in formulating a strategic plan. This is a plan to operationalise strategy or put strategy into practice.

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Perancangan Strategik
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Strategic planning is a formal process of defining business including the vision, objectives, the critical success factors and strategies for an organization.

This strategic process is carried out by taking into consideration the internal strengths and weakness of a corporation and the challenges in the external environment.
Victor Tan (1995)

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Definisi Pelan Strategik


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

A strategic plan is a written document which describes where your school wants to be in the future (usually three to five years), and the broad areas of activity that it will undertake to achieve this vision. It is different from an operational plan (or workplan), which details activities over the next 12 months (at least). These two types of plan are closely connected, however, as the operational plans should be moving the school towards the vision defined in the strategic plan.
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PLANNING IN THE HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATIONS


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Strategic Planning

Top Executives

Middle-Level Managers
First-Level Managers

Operational Planning
@ 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Hubungan antara Pengurusan Strategik dan Perancangan Strategik


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Pengurusan strategik boleh dianggap sebagai otak manakala perancangan strategik merupakan tulang belakang kepada pengurusan strategik.
(Steiner, 1979)

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Kepentingan Pengurusan Strategik kepada organisasi

Creates a framework for determining the direction an school should take to achieve its desired future, Provides a framework for achieving competitive advantage, Allows all school constituencies to participate and work together towards accomplishing goals, "Raises the vision of all key participants, encouraging them to reflect creatively on the strategic direction" of the school Allows the dialogue between the participants improving understanding of the organization's vision, and fostering a sense of ownership of the strategic plan, and belonging to the organization, Aims to align the school with its environment, Allows the school to set priorities. Menjadikan seseorang pengurus itu sebagai pemimpin yang cemerlang; melakukan perkara yang betul, dengan betul, untuk orang/pihak yang betul, pada tempat yang betul, pada masa yang betul dan dalam bajet yang betul.
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

MANAGERS & LEADERS SPEND THEIR TIME (A,B,C & D) MANAGEMENT MODEL (Kurstedt & Tompkins)
A. ADMINISTER THE BUSINESS, DO THE JOB B. BUILD THE BUSINESS, IMPROVE C. CATER TO CRISES, FIGHT FIRE D. DO THE DUMB THINGS
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PARETO PRINCIPLE
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

20% OF ACTIVITIES ACCOUNT 80% OF THE VALUE (SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES FOR COMPLETION OR NON COMPLETION

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Evolusi Pengurusan Strategik


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

1920- Harvard Business School Strategic Planning 1950 and mid-1970s: boom time ( design schoolChandler) End 1970- suffering Emerged as corporate planning 1980s: Under influence of the Entrepreneurial School and Positioning School Term change to Strategic Management
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Evolusi Pengurusan Strategik


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Analisis persekitaran

Strategik PSM (HRM) Pengurusan atasan

Jangka pendek Belanjawan tahunan

Analisis persekitaran
3 tahun

5 tahun Tulang belakang Pengurusan Strategik

Asas Perancangan Kewangan

Perancangan Korporat

Perancangan Strategik

Pengurusan Strategik

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

3 levels of Strategy

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Mintzberg et al (1998) identified 10 schools of strategy research which have developed since strategic management emerged as a field of study during the 1960s: 1. The Design School - strategy as a process of conception 2. The Planning School - strategy as a formal process 3. The Positioning School - strategy as an analytical process 4. The Entrepreneurial School - strategy as a visionary process 5. The Cognitive School - strategy as a mental process 6. The Learning School - strategy as an emergent process 7. The Power School - strategy as a process of negotiation 8. The Cultural School - strategy as a collective process 9. The Environmental School - strategy as a reactive process 10. The Configuration School - strategy as a process of transformation

10 schools of strategy

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

10 Dominant Strategy Schools

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Model Baru Peng. Strategik

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KESIMPULAN
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Pengurusan dan perancangan strategik adalah berkaitan membuat keputusan. Keputusan yang dibuat pada hari ini, amat penting untuk hari esok dan masa depan. Kesilapan seorang doktor, mungkin hilang satu nyawa, tetapi Kesilapan seorang pendidik, akan merosak satu generasi.

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Proses Pertama

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Aktiviti Persediaan Perancangan


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Memberi penjelasan/kefahaman tentang tujuan membina perancangan strategik (initial agreement) dan faedahnya kepada organisasi (Rujuk nota edaran 1- Artikel oleh Muhd.
Bustaman, Jurnal IAB, 1997.)

Bentuk jawatankuasa kerja, lantik the champion/Pengurus, Beri penjelasan tentang peranan dan tugas setiap ahli Semak tahapreadiness to plan/ condition for success (avoid pitfalls) (Rujuk helaian kerja
1a)
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Ringkasan maklumat/potfolio organisasi Kenal pasti isu-isu strategik yang perlu dikumpul maklumat (Rujuk
helaian kerja 1b)

Pilih pendekatan proses pembinaan perancangan strategik yang sesuai Bina plan kerja/aktiviti bagi pembangunan perancangan strategik (termasuk program retreat jika ada)
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

KOMPONEN TERAS (THE CORE)

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FOKUS KANDUNGAN
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Menjawab Persoalan Utama Berikut:


1. Apakah tujuan penubuhan @ fungsi utama organisasi anda & sasaran (pelanggan)nya? (Siapakah anda?) (MANDAT & MISI) 2. Kemanakah arah tuju yang ingin dicapai (masa depan) & bagaimana tujuan ini akan dicapai? (VISI) 3. Apakah matlamat-matlamat strategik bagi memperkasakan sekolah anda? (MATLAMAT) 4. Apakah Nilai/prinsip yang dipegang bersama? 5. Apakah Piagam Pelanggan organisasi anda? 6. Apakah Moto, Logo & Warna Organisasi anda?
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Teras Utama P Strategik bagi organisasi awam:


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Mandat Misi Visi Matlamat Strategik

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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1. ANALISIS MANDAT
Apakah itu Mandat? An official command or instruction/ Authority to pursue a policy or course of action + Tauliah +Apa yang mesti dibuat bagi tujuan memenuhi tanggungjawab dan misinya -+ Garis panduan tanggungjawab umum sesebuah organisasi

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Sumber Mandat
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Akta Pendidikan 1996 Dasar-Dasar Kerajaan Arahan Ketua Organisasi (cth KPPM)

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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Apakah itu MISI?


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Ia adalah satu pernyataan ringkas dan padat yang menjelaskan perkara berikut: a. Tujuan atau sebab ditubuhkan organisasi anda? (What is our basic purpose or Why do we exist?) Kepada siapa perkhidmatan diberikan? (pelanggan) (Who we serve? , as our customers: geography, segments, names) Apakah yang hasil akhir yang diingini? (What we produce- outcome benefits: products, services, uses)
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Why is a mission statement important? A good mission statement helps to ensure that everyone in the school is working towards the same direction. A strong and inspiring statement is also important for representing the school to members, donors, volunteers and the public. It will tell them that your school has a clear direction and knows what it is doing.
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Contoh Pernyataan MISI


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

INSTITUT TADBIRAN AWAM NEGARA (INTAN)

Untuk membangun sumber manusia dalam sektor awam melalui latihan berkualiti
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CIRI-CIRI MISI YANG BAIK


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

Ringkas dan mudah diingati. Jelas dan difahami oleh semua. Menjawab persoalan What, Who & How Elakan pengunaan bahasa yang sukar difahami (bombastik) menggambarkan kepakaran unik organisasi. Lebih luas (broad) bagi membolehkan pelaksanaan yang fleksibel kepada situasi yang diinginkan. Cukup spesifik untuk menjadi panduan kepada warga organisasi membuat keputusan.

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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Mission Statement Worksheet


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Process Notes For Facilitators:

How to do this activity:- Two options: - 1. Have staff fill out Worksheet 7 in advance of a planning retreat and then discuss the key components at a special meeting or retreat, or - 2. Have one or two designated staff from the planning committee review the current mission statement, redraft it as necessary and present first to the Planning Committee, then to Headmaster and staff for feedback.
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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Semuanya bermula di sini


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Vision without action is merely a dream Action without vision just passes the time, BUT Vision with action can change the world
Joel Barker (The Power of Vision, 1991)
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Metafora

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Komponen penting dalam pernyataan Visi/Wawasan


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1. Menerangkan tujuan kewujudan, kerja utama &


pelanggan sasaran sesebuah organisasi (Misinya)

2. Keunggulan masa depan yang unik (Kekuatan yang memberikan sesebuah organisasi itu
kelebihan. Ia mentakrifkan kelebihan & kecemerlangan organisasi)

3. Nilai-nilai yang dikongsi bersama. (Kepercayaan, prinsip moral, dan falsafah yang
membentuk budaya organisasi)

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CONTOH PERNYATAAN VISI


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

INTAN akan menjadi pusat latihan bertaraf dunia


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CONTOH PERNYATAAN VISI


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1. INTAN Vision Towards becoming a world class public sector training institution. Mission To develop human resource in the public sector through quality training. 2.
.UPSI VISI Menjadi Universiti yang bitara, cemerlang dalam kepemimpinan pendidikan berlandaskan kegemilangan sejarah serta menerajui perubahan global. MISI Menjana dan menatar ilmu menerusi pengajaran, penyelidikan, penerbitan, perundingan dan khidmat masyarakat, dalam konteks pembangunan insan untuk mencapai wawasan negara.

Penilaian Tahap Kecekapan @ Hak Cipta Terpelihara

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CONTOH PERNYATAAN VISI


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

IAB akan menjadi peneraju utama dalam latihan pengurusan dan kepimpinan pendidikan menjelang tahun 2010

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Hala Tuju Organisasi

Mengapa pentingnya Visi ?


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Why is a vision statement important? A good vision statement will challenge and inspire members of the school (board, staff, volunteers) to work together to achieve success. It is difficult to create a vision statement that is exciting enough to inspire people, but is also realistic enough for people to believe it is attainable.
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

8 NILAI STRATEGIK VISI


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Menetapkan Haluan Meningkatkan kemampuan untuk berubah Pemangkin prestasi

Penyemarak motivasi & komitmen staf

KUASA WAWASAN

Mengintegrasi organisasi

Merungkai paradigma Meningkatkan daya kepimpinan

Memberikan Pengertian

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Garis Panduan Untuk Membina Pernyataan VISI? (1)


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1. Libatkan pemikiran strategik berkaitan: Membuat anjakan paradigma dan berfikiran futuristik Kemana hendak dibawa hala tujuan sekolah anda? 2. Tetapkan posisi kejayaan masa hadapan untuk lima tahun kehadapan. 3. Bertanya apakah identiti sekolah yang akan dibina untuk masa depan.

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Garis Panduan Untuk Membina Pernyataan VISI? (2)


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

4. Nyatakan/jelaskan what an organization wants to be (..akan menjadi? ) bukannya what is.

5. Gambarkan situasi atau keadaan yang lebih baik di masa hadapan dalam beberapa aspek penting berbanding dengan apa yang wujud sekarang.

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Ciri-Ciri Pernyataan VISI yang baik


6. Jelas menyatakan tahap perubahan yang diinginkanmasa depan atau Menggambarkan kejayaan yang hendak dicapai. (Benchmark perubahan) 7. Mencabar dan bermotivasi (driving force ) 8. Ringkas dan mudah difahami untuk dihayati oleh SEMUA warga dalam organisasi. 9. Lebih fleksibel untuk dibentuk agar organisasi sentiasa pantas dan berdaya tahan bagi menghadapi kesulitan 10. Dikongsi dengan stakeholders, pelanggan, pembekal, komuniti dsb. 11. Jelas hubunganya dengan pernyataan misi
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

a. Bagaimana sekolah anda akan bertambah baik atau berubah jika kita berjaya mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan? b. Apakah perkhidmatan yang utama yang patut kita terus sediakan, berubah, atau mula untuk ditawarkan pada tiga ke lima tahun kehadapan? C. Apakah perkara yang berkaitan dengan pengurusan, staf, sumber, fasiliti, sistem pengurusan perlu kita laksanakan lebih baik untuk mencapai kejayaan perubahan yang diinginkan? Atau Adakah kita telah membuat penilaian persekitaran dalaman dan luaran keatas sekolah anda? D. Bagaimana kita boleh menjadi lebih cekap dan berkesan dalam memberikan perkhidmatan kita? E. Apakah perkara atau ciri-ciri (watak) yang menjadikan sekolah kita begitu unik, berbeza dari sekolah lain? F. Apakah yang pihak pelanggan dan stakeholders beri pertimbangan utama kepada perkhidmatan kita? Atau Apakah yang mereka mahu atau harapkan dari kita?
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Guna Soalan-Soalan Berikut:

Bagaimana Untuk Membina VISI Strategik? (Kaedah pilihan)

INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

Vision to be successful:
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Initiate by leader Shared and supported Clarifies direction and purpose Comprehensive Must be positive and inspiring (ambitious) Sets a standard of excellence Fits the school and the times Clear and easy to understand

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Helaian kerja (V1): Pembinaan Pernyataan Visi (1)


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1.

2.

Nota Proses Kerja Bagaimana Untuk Menjalankan Aktiviti: Edarkan helaian kerja pembinaan pernyataan visi kepada peserta/staff lebih awal sebelum mesyuarat. Minta mereka menerangkan visi kejayaan yang diinginkan
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

Helaian kerja (V1): Pembinaan Pernyataan Visi (2)


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

3. Jika jumlah peserta (ahli) yang hadir mesyuarat kecil, jemput mereka bacakan visinya dan rekod pada papan tanda, dan jika pada kumpulan besar, bahagikan kepada kumpulan kecil dan kerja secara berkumpulan. 4. Gambaran kejayaan yang dipersetujui dibuat penambah
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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI


KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

KESIMPULANNYA: VISI perlulah

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Nilai
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Nilai ialah prinsip, standard dan tatacara tindakan seseorang dalam sesuatu organisasi.
(W.G Ricky & M. Pustay, 1999)

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Values
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Values are about how we have learnt to think things ought to be or people ought to behave, especially in terms of qualities such as honesty, integrity and openness

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Beliefs
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1.

2.

Beliefs are the assumptions we make about ourselves, about others in the world and about how we expect things to be. Beliefs are about how we think things really are, what we think is really true and what therefore expect as likely consequences that will follow from our behavior. 2 types beliefs: Empowering Beliefs: related to excellence and how it could be achieved. Limiting Beliefs: your behavior is not what you want, but you think you cannot change it. Change, replace or discard completely such beliefs!
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

NILAI DALAM ORGANISASI

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Misi & Visi secara implisit


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Piagam Pelanggan Moto atau Slogan Logo organisasi Warna Organisasi

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Rehat

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

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Analisis Persekitaran Strategik: Soalan-soalan penting


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1.
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Where are we now? What are our stakeholders needs?

2.

3.

What do our assessment data tell us?


What are we doing well?

4.

5.
6. 7.

What can we improve


External opportunities/threats? What is happening in the external environments? Trends?

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Jenis-Jenis Analisis
INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Matrik KLAP (SWOT) Matrik Portfolio (BSG/ GEC) Analisis Senario Matrik NDTS (Space) Analisis Titik Pulangan Modal PEST (Persekitaran Luar)

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Analisis KLAP/ SWOT


INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Apakah Kekuatan (S), Kelemahan (W), Peluang (O) dan Ancaman (T) Organisasi?

T
8.10 69

Rujuk Nota Edaran 3: Case Study: TOWS

What is a SWOT analysis?


A SWOT analysis is a way of assessing your schools internal strengths and weaknesses, and the external opportunities and threats. It can help you to answer the following questions: 1. How can your school use its strengths to make best use of opportunities? 2. How can your school use its strengths to avert threats? 3. Should you invest in a programme which is weak, but which offers some opportunities, or should you close it? 4. How should you respond to a weakness in the school that makes it vulnerable to a threat?

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Who is involved?
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Management members, staff and external stakeholders should provide the information required for a SWOT analysis. Senior staff and board members will need to analyse the information and decide how the findings affect the future strategy of the school.

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SWOT Analysis Know What To Look For


Potential Resource Strengths
Powerful strategy Strong financial condition Strong brand name image/reputation Widely recognized market leader Proprietary technology Cost advantages Strong advertising Product innovation skills Good customer service Better product quality Alliances or JVs

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Potential Resource Weaknesses


No clear strategic direction Obsolete facilities Weak balance sheet; excess debt Higher overall costs than rivals Missing some key skills/competencie s

Potential Institution Opportunities


Serving additional customer groups Expanding to new geographic areas Expanding product line Transferring skills to new products Vertical integration Take market share from rivals Acquisition of rivals Alliances or JVs to expand coverage Openings to exploit new technologies

Potential External Threats


Entry of potent new competitors Loss of sales to substitutes Slowing market growth Adverse shifts in exchange rates & trade policies Costly new regulations Vulnerability to business cycle Growing leverage of customers or suppliers Reduced buyer needs for product Demographic changes 72

Subpar profits
Internal operating problems . . . Falling behind in R&D Too narrow product line

Weak marketing skills

Openings to extend brand name/image

How to undertake a SWOT analysis


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There are two main stages to a SWOT analysis: gathering information and analysing it. Note: It is important to plan at the start how you will undertake these tasks and who will be involved.

73

1. Gather information
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You need to gather information about internal and external factors. The main questions are: 1. What do we do well as a school? (Strengths) 2. What can we improve as a school? (Weaknesses)

74

Bagaimana maklumat dikumpul?


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Semakan dokumen dan rekod Kajian:


Soalselidik Temubual Pemerhatian Hasil-hasil penyelidikan Sorotan literatur

75

Identifying Resource Strengths and Capabilities


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A strength is something an organization does well or a characteristic that enhances its abilities. You will need to gather information about:

Valuable staff competencies or know-how Valuable physical assets Valuable human assets Valuable organizational assets Valuable intangible assets Important competitive capabilities An attribute that places a school in a position of advantage Alliances or cooperative ventures with capable partners
Resource strengths and competitive capabilities are competitive assets !

76

Identifying Resource Weaknesses and Competitive Deficiencies

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INSTITUT AMINUDDIN BAKI

A weakness is something an organization lacks, does poorly, or a condition placing it at a disadvantage

Resource weaknesses relate to

Deficiencies in know-how or expertise or competencies

Lack of important physical, organizational, or intangible assets


Missing capabilities in key areas

Resource weaknesses and deficiencies are competitive liabilities !


77

Maklumat Persekitaran Luaran Strategik


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Think about external events that affect your school. These can be political, economic, social, technological, demographic and legal, including changing needs of customer/ people, increased competition, changing regulations, or new interest in a particular problem by potential customers . Think about where you can obtain information about external events.

The main questions to ask are:


1. What changes are taking place outside the school that might help us to achieve our mission? (opportunities) 2. What changes outside the school do we need to guard against or prepare for? (threats)

78

Skop Maklumat Persekitaran Luaran Strategik: PEST


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Political

Legislation and Regulation International relations, world peace Economic cycles, recession, boom Currency rates, interest rates, tariff/taxes/quotas Capital, labour and commodity markets Demographics, foreigners Tastes, fashion, perception, worldview Environmental awareness Process effect development Product capability ICT

Economic

Social

Technological

79

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Think about quantitative information (such as records containing statistics) as well as qualitative (such as comments about your programmes from staff, beneficiaries, and other stakeholders). Qualitative information can be gained through interviews, group discussions, field observations, reviews of written materials and questionnaires.
80

2. Analyse the information


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After gathering the information you will need to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and analyse how they link with each other. You may want to convene a workshop for staff to discuss these issues. Questions to ask are: How can you build on your strengths? How can you minimise or eliminate your weaknesses? Do any of the external issues provide an opportunity for your school? Do any external issues threaten to hold back your school?
81

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Analisis Dalaman/Luaran Bidang/Aspek Kekuatan/ Peluang Kelemahan/ Ancaman

Kurikulum
HEM

Ko-kurikulum
Pentadbiran & Infrastruktur fizikal Komuniti

82

Matrik penilaian SWOT


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Faktor kekuatan

Kadar Kepentingan

(a) 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .05 .10 .05 .15 .05 05 .05 .05 .05 .05

Keupayaan (1-4) (b) 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3

Jumlah Skor (a x b) .20 .40 .15 .60 .15 .15 .15 .20 .15 .15

S/W

83

Matrik penilaian SWOT (samb)


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Faktor kelemahan

Kadar Kepentingan

(a) 1. 2 3 4 5 JUMLAH

Keupayaan (1-4) (b) 1 2 2 1 1

Jumlah Skor (a x b) .05 .10 .10 .10 .10 _____ 2.75

S/W

.05 .05 .05 .10 .10 _____ 1.00

84

QUALITY TOOLS (Rujuk NotaTool Kit)


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Problem analysis Process analysis Force Field Analysis Cause & Effect Diagram Pareto Analysis Gap Analysis Root Cause Evaluation Matrix
85

Hasil Analisis Persekitaran


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1. Sejauh manakah strategistrategi yang sedia ada berkesan?

86

Analisis Persekitaran Strategik


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Melibatkan DUA langkah

Kenal pasti strategistrategi digunakan sekarang


Kaji indikator kepada strategi-strategi dan prestasi kejayaan.

87

Analisis Persekitaran Strategik


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Indikator Penting yang Menunjukkan Keberkesanan Strategi

Ada usaha-usaha penambahbaikan berterusan


Imej dan reputasi yang tinggi di kalangan stakeholders Peranan-peranan kepimpinan untuk meningkatkan penggunaan teknologi, kualiti, inovasi dsb.
88

Dari Analisis Persekitaran Strategik


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2. Apakah isu-isu strategik yang sedang dihadapi oleh organisasi?

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90

KENALPASTI ISU-ISU STRATEGIK


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Strategic issues is a strength, weakness, opportunity, or threat or problem or opportunity- that has or will have the potential to have a significant impact on the institution or stakeholders (Sevier, 2000). The other is knowing exactly why the school exists (Smith, 94) . Something we need to respond to, something we cant ignore. Something you need to deal with (Sevier, 2000) (the good, the bad & the Ugly)

91

Stating the Issues Clearly and Precisely


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A well-stated issue involves such phrases as What should be done about .?


How to .? Whether to .? Should we .?

Issues need to be precise, specific, and cut straight to the chase

Issues on the the worry list raise questions about


What actions need to be considered What to think about doing


92

What Strategic Issues Does the organization Need to Address?


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Get ready with worry list A good strategy must address what to do about each and every strategic issue!

93

Pendekatan untuk kenalpasti isu strategik


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1. The direct approachstakeholder

moves directly from a review of mandates, mission and situational analysis

2. The goals approach-

vision, mission,

3. The vision of success-

asked the best picture of itself in the future as it fulfills its mission and achieves success

Pilih LIMA isu utama untuk dijadikan matlamat strategik.


94

How to triggers to issues?


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SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS
POTENTIAL ISSUE TO FIND HOW THIS HELPS (diversification strategy) POTENTIAL ISSUE OF HOW TO HANDLE (defensive strategy)
95

POTENTIAL ISSUE FOR EXPLOTATION (aggressive strategy)


POTENTIAL ISSUE FOR CORRECTING WEAKNESS (Turn-around startegy)

WEAKNESSES

Matlamat Strategik

MATLAMAT STRATEGIK
Def of GOALS: Broad statements describing how you will reach your vision, answering the questions: 1. how will we know when weve arrived? 2. How will we get there?

Matlamat Strategik
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Merupakan garis panduan yang terperinci mengenai apa yang ingin dicapai pada masa hadapan. Dibina berasaskan peranan organisasi dalam persekitaran mega (societal), makro (regional) dan mikro (school/centre). Menjawab apakah yang perlu dilakukan untuk mencapai VISI dan MISI ?

98

Indikator Prestasi
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Definition: Benchmarks, targets, standards or other measures used to evaluate the quality of product and services.

99

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100

OBJEKTIF
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1. Objektif ialah sesuatu yang perlu dicapai berdasarkan sasaran yang ditetapkan. 2. Hasil Khusus yang ingin dicapai oleh organisasinya semasa melaksanakan misi asasnya (David, 2003)

101

Kepentingan Objektif yang baik


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Menentukan arah Membantu proses penilaian yang tepat Mendedahkan keutamaan Fokus kepada penyelarasan Mengawal Memotivasi pihak terlibat

102

OBJEKTIF
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CIRI-CIRI OBJEKTIF YANG BAIK: Specific (khusus) Measureable (boleh diukur)

Attainable (boleh dicapai)


Reliable (boleh dipercayai/konsisten) Time frame (berjangkamasa)

Penilaian Tahap Kecekapan: @ Hak Cipta Terpelihara

103

OBJEKTIF
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DUA bentuk objektif: Objektif yang perlu dicapai untuk jangka masa melebihi dari setahun dikenali sebagai - jangka panjang (David,2003)
Objektif yang perlu dicapai untuk untuk jangka masa kurang dari setahun seperti pelan taktikal/pelan tindakan dikenali sebagai jangka pendek)
104

OBJEKTIF
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JANGKA PANJANG
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SPM
2004 % PMR % % % % %
105

2005 %

2006 %

2007 %

2008 %

OBJEKTIF
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JANGKA PANJANG

KOKURIKULUM
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

SAHSIAH 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

106

Qualities of Long-Term Objectives


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Achievable
Criteria used in preparing objectives

Acceptable
Flexible Measurable Motivating
107

Understandable

Suitable

OBJEKTIF
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JANGKA PENDEK

Selepas program ini dilaksanakan:


100 % pelajar T 1 boleh membaca. 95 % guru mahir dalam pengajaran matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris Kadar ponteng dapat diturunkan ke tahap kurang daripada 5 %.
108

Perhatian?
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Objektif sering bertukar/dikelirukan dengan Matlamat. Setiap satu objektif mesti menyokong sekurang-kurangnya Matlamat/Isu dan disokong/dihubungkaitkan dengan sekurang-kurangnya satu strategi(cara/mean untuk mencapai objektif berkaitan)

109

QUALITY TOOLS
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Tree diagram Decision analysis Critical success factors Relations diagram Process analysis Gap analysis Mission Statement Kaizen

110

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111

What is Organisational Strategy?


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A strategy is defined as a pattern, of purposes, policies, programmes, actions, decisions, or resource allocations that define what a school is, what it does, and why it does it. Strategies can vary by level function, and by time frame. (Bryson, 1995, p.32)

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112

Mintzbergs 5 Ps
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Strategy can be characterised as a Ploy Outwitting a rival Position Place in the market Perspective A powerful group Plan A consciously intended course of action, general or specific Pattern
113

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strategy as encompassing direction-setting, broad aggregated agendas, perspective to view the future and a template against which to evaluate current activities
(Davies, 2004)

114

Pembinaan Strategi
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Strategi organisasi mesti berkait dengan: Cara merealisasikan VISI & MISI strategik. Cara merealisasikan matlamat & objektif strategik organisasi. Cara melaksanakan perancangan dengan berkesan.

115

Dua Faktor Penentu Pemilihan Strategi


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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA FAKTOR PERSAINGAN KOMUNITI DAN PERANAN SOSIAL, POLITIK, STAKEHOLDER PERUNDANGAN PELUANG & CABARAN TERHADAP ORGANISASI

FAKTOR LUARAN

PERSEKITARAN STRATEGIK ORGANISASI

TENTUKAN KERELEVANAN FAKTOR LUAR & DALAM

KENAL PASTI & NILAIKAN ALTERNATIF

JANAKAN STRATEGI

KEKUATAN SUMBER, PERANAN KEMAMPUAN STAF PENTING DAN KELEMAHAN

NILAI DAN BUDAYA ORGANISASI YANG DIKONGSI

FAKTOR DALAMAN

116

Helaian kerja 8

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Analisis Strategi semasa dan lepas

Kenalpasti dan nilai srategi lepas dan sekarang.

Strategi (sekarang & lepas)

Adakah ia berkesan? Mengapa? Pertimbangan untuk diteruskan? Mengapa?

117

Teknik-teknik pemilihan strategi


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Senario analisis Matrik KLAP/SWOT Matrik NDTS/SPACE Matrik BCG Matrik GEC

Matrik strategi Utama Analisis Titik Pulang Modal Keluk Pengalaman Sinergi dan sumber

118

MATRIKS B.C.G.
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Organizational Share High

Low

High

Area Growth Rate


Low

?
Source: Originally Boston Consulting Group.

119

SWOT ANALYSIS AND GRAND STRATEGIES


2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Valuable Strengths

Firm Status

Organizational Organizational Growth Stability Strategies Strategies

Critical Weaknesses

Organizational Organizational Stability Retrenchment Strategies Strategies


Environmental Status
Critical Environmental Threats
120

Abundant Environmental Opportunities

PENJANAAN STRATEGI MENGGUNAKAN SWOT MATRIKS


STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES 1. 2.

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INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

1. 2.

LIST STRENGTHS

LIST WEAKNESSES

3.
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

3.
4.

4,

OPPORTUNITIES 1. 2. 3. 4.

S-O STRATEGIES
LIST OPPORTUNITIES

W-O STRATEGIES

USE STRENGTHS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OPPORTUNITIES


THREATS

OVERCOME WEAKNESSES BY TAKING ADVANTAGE OF OPPORTUNITIES


W-T STRATEGIES

1. 2. 3. 4,

S-T STRATEGIES
LIST THREATS

USE STRENGTHS TO AVOID THREATS

MINIMIZE WEAKNESSES AND AVOID THREATS


121

Helaian Kerja 15

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Strategi-Strategi Utama
Isu Strategik (Nyatakan dalam bentuk soalan)

Kenal pasti dan nilai strategi-strategi utama yang dipilih.


Andaian, fakta, nilai yang menyokong strategi ini? Apakah halangan yang mungkin dihadapi bila dilaksanakan strategi ini? Apa yang menjadi pendorong anda memilih strategi ini?

Strategi Cadangan

122

PELAN TINDAKAN/TAKTIKAL

Pelan Tindakan (Pelan Taktikal)


Setiap strategi perlu dituruti oleh pelan tindakan/pelan taktikal. Pelan taktikal adalah langkah jangka pendek (maka objektifnya adalah jangka pendek). Setiap strategi perlu mempunyai sekurangkurangnya SATU pelan taktikal. Pelaksanaan pelan taktikal perlu melalui proses yang detail/terperinci Setiap proses pelaksanaan perlu mengambil kira pelan kontingensi (sebagai langkah pencegahan).
124

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Ciri-Ciri Pelan Tindakan Yang Baik


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Nyatakan aktiviti-aktiviti (tindakan) yang dicadangkan Siapakah yang bertanggungjawab? Tempoh masa pelaksanaan Indikator pengukuran prestasi atau output Sumber yang diperlukan Adalah lebih baik disertakan bersama pada setiap helaian jadual perkara seperti: 1. Strategi 2. Matlamat Strategik atau objektif (bagi memperlihatkan hubungannya) 3. Elemen dalam Visi dan Misi. Tip: Pastikan setiap tindakan/aktiviti dihubungkait sekurang-kurangnya satu strategi.
125

Contoh Format Pelan Tindakan


VISI / MISI /ISU STRATEGIK (salah satu)

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MATLAMAT STRATEGIK

INDIKATOR PRESTASI ATAU Faktor Kritikal Kejayaan CSF)


OBJEKTIF

STRATEGI

Bil

Tindakan

Tanggungjawab (pelaksana)

Tempoh masa

Sumber (kos,manusia, alat)

Output

Petunjuk Prestasi

Pelan Kontingensi

Catatan

1 2

126

Format Program/Pelan Operasi


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1. Nama Program 2. Rasional 3. Objektif Program 4. Tarikh dan Tempoh Pelaksanaan 5. Jawatankuasa pelaksana dan senarai tugas 6. Kos Pelaksanaan 7. Jadual Tindakan (senarai proses kerja termasuk carta aliran kerja) & tindakan kontingensi 8. Penilaian Program 9. Tindakan Susulan 10. Lampiran Berkenaan

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127

Pelan Kontigensi
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Contingency planning (cp) is a technique that aims to reduce or eradicate uncertainty from strategic and operational planning (BTEC-UK, 96)
CP are attempts to answer the what if? questions about major issues that can seriously affect an school and the achievement of its long-term success. CP can be made at any level (Strategic level, Operational level & Individual level) Including- securing data & system software
128

Pendekatan Pelan Kontingensi


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1. Ad Hoc Approaches- event is dealt with when it occurs. 2. Planned Approaches- CP may work when the possibilities are circumscribed and each is well structured, based on long experience.
(Mintzberg,94) It help schools to deal wit uncertainty and risk however not to paralysis by analysis. 3. Scenario Planning Cp develop by Shell- believed that the process would make decision makers more sensitive to signals of possible change in the worldable to respond more rapidly and effectively to change when it actually occurred (PEST Analysis).
129

Approaches proposed to identify contingency


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Causal forecasting A combination of research and judgement Judgement Predictive forecasting Research

130

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131

Isu-Isu Utama Dalam Pelaksanaan Perancangan Strategik Secara Berkesan


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A study in Fortune magazine found that less than 10 percent of strategies effectively developed were effectively implemented. In another study, Fortune found that in more than seventy percent of the cases when CEOs fail, it's not the strategy, but the execution that went awry. Fokus:

Kepimpinan Penyebaran & Internal marketing Pelan Strategik (Communicating) Pengurusan Perubahan Pembinaan Pasukan
132

To promote successful strategy implementation. The following five things were mentioned most frequently.
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Communication, communication, communication. Start with a good concept or idea. Obtain employee commitment and involvement. Provide sufficient resources Develop an implementation plan. (1989: 394-395)
133

Ciri-Ciri Pemimpin Strategik (1)


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Understand the environment. To understand the strategic context for planning, leaders need to understand the environment global to local- and identify major trends for the organization. Revisit the mission. Develop a powerful and shared mission. Answer three fundamental questions: What is our business? Who is our customer? and What does the customer value? Communicate the vision. Leaders communicate the vision until it permeates the outer edges of the corporation. Ban the hierarchy.

134

Ciri-Ciri Pemimpin Strategik (2)

Challenge your belief. There are no sacred cows. For business or government one of the most difficult tasks is the planned abandonment of what works today, but will have little meaning for the future. Dispersed leadership. The more power you give away the more power you have, leadership has little to do with power and everything to do with responsibility, you share responsibility. No matter what you call it just do it. Leaders need to lead by example with clear consistent messages, great involvement of people in decisions that affect them, and pushing shared decision making across to the outer circles of the corporation. The mission becomes theirs; the investment is theirs; the energy flows, and dispersed leadership becomes a reality. The power of language. People today need a covenant, not a contract. Lead from the front. Do not push from the rear. Do not be a skillful fence sitter. Walk the talk, never break a promise. Communicate the vision.[1]
[1] Frances Hesselbein, Strategic Leadership, Executive Excellence 11.8 (Aug 1994):13-17.

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135

Resistance to Change in the Workplace: Main Reasons

Fear of the unknown. Change implies uncertainty, and uncertainty is uncomfortable. Not knowing what may potentially happen often leads to heightened anxiety. Resisting change is one of the anxietyreducing actions.1 Fear of failure. The new order may require skill and abilities that may be beyond our capabilities. There is resistance to trying a new approach as people know how to operate in the existing order, but fear they will not be able to the new skills and behavior that will be required of them. Disagreement with the need for change. Associates may feel that the new direction is a wrong direction.
136

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Losing something of value. All associates want to know how the change will affect them. If people believe they will wind up losing as a result of the change, they will resist. Misunderstanding and lack of trust. People resist change when they do not understand its implications and perceive that it might cost them much more than they gain. Such situations often occur when trust is lacking between the person initiating the change and the employees.2 Inertia. Change requires effort, oftentimes, a significant one. So, don't underestimate the power of fatigue and burnout.

137

Strategies for Dealing with Resistance to Change

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Approach
1. Education & communication 2. Participation & involvement

Commonly Used in Situations


1. Where there is lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis Where initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist Where people are resisting because of adjustment problems Where someone, or some group, having a considerable power to resist will clearly loose out in a change Where other tactics will not work, or are too expensive Where speed is essential, and the change initiators possess considerable power

3. Facilitation & support 4. Negotiation & agreement 5. Manipulation & cooperation 6. Explicit & implicit coercion

138

Monitoring Strategy Implementation


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Developing an effective strategic plan is only "half the battle. Getting it implemented is the other half -- completing the tactics (action steps) to accomplish the strategies and objectives within the plan. An important part of strategy implementation is monitoring -- taking periodic looks at "how it's going" in implementing your strategic plan.

139

Monitoring the implementation of your strategic plan is important for a number of reasons.

First, it helps to assure that your efforts conform to the plan. That you're actually performing the action steps you intended. That you're "on track." Second, you've got to be sure the results you achieve correspond to our quantified objectives.. That you're accomplishing what you intended. Monitoring helps here too. Third, monitoring allows for corrective action. For making the necessary changes along the way. To "fine tune," not only your strategies, but your planning process as well.

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140

And since monitoring is part of a control process, it encourages improved performance. Knowing they'll be measured stimulates employees to do a better job. Thus, through mid-course correction, monitoring helps produce better plans. Finally, and most importantly, monitoring provides the essential link between the written plan and the day-to-day operation of your business. It demonstrates to all that "you really are managing the business according to your plan". Monitoring the plan makes your entire planning effort a tangible reality rather than a once-a-year academic exercise.
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Getting "Back on Track"

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But let's be realistic. Not all will go perfectly well. Some of your action steps will be off target. Some of your strategies won't work. Some of your objectives will be missed. What then? What corrective actions can you take? You can take one of four corrective actions. First, you can change your schedule -- slip your due date. Second, you can change the tactics you're performing to implement your strategy. Third, you can change your strategy. Finally, as a last resort, you can compromise your objective. Each of these corrective actions is applicable under specific circumstances. Let's see....

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Monitoring Strategy
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4 Questions:
1. How well we implement the projects in our Strategic master Project Plan? Is the project meeting its objectives, at required level of quality? How does our progress measure up against the expected timelines established? Are we staying within the expected budget of human and financial resources? Has anything changed to causes us to revisit the priority of projects?
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continue
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2. Is strategy driving the decisions made in our organizations.


How are your decisions consistent with the strategy? How are you institutionalizing strategy in your area of responsibility to ensure coherence and consistency?

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Continue (3)
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3. Are the environmental assumptions we made during strategy formulation still valid? 4. Is our strategy viable? Is it driving our success in the marketplace?
Use Balanced Score Card to monitor results in the key areas. Kaplan & Norton recommended in 4 areas: Financial performance Customer knowledge Internal business processes Learning and growth.
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What is the Balanced Scorecard?


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The Balanced Scorecard is a set of measures that are directly linked to the organizations strategy. It directs an organization to link its own long-term strategy with tangible goals and actions.

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The Balanced Scorecard

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Financial To succeed financially, how should we appear to our shareholders? Internal Business Process To satisfy our shareholders and customers, what business processes must we excel at?

Customer To achieve our vision, how should we appear to our customers?

Vision and Strategy


Learning and Growth To achieve our vision, how will we sustain our ability to change and improve?

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TYPES OF CONTROL
@ Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Input

Processes

Output

Feedforward Control Anticipates problems

Concurrent Control Corrects problems as they happen

Feedback Control Corrects problems after they occur

2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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THE CONTROL PROCESS


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@ Pearson Education Canada Inc. 150

PROSES KAWALAN
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Kawalan melibatkan EMPAT langkah

Andaikan bahawa standard prestasi telah wujud, contohnya: Objektif khusus telah ditentukan dalam perancangan Kaedah Pengukuran: Pemerhatian perorangan (memerlukan
liputan luas) Management By Walking Around (MBWA / WAYS) Masalah- berat sebelah (biased).
BERSAMBUNG

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PROSES KAWALAN
Laporan Statistik (senang dilihat dan

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berguna untuk melihat perhubungan antara pembolehubah) Masalah-tidak semuanya boleh diukur dengan mudah.

Laporan Mulut (merangkum mesyuarat,


panggilan telefon dll.) Masalah-sukar untuk menapis maklumat.

Laporan Bertulis (lebih komprehensif


dan bermaklumat) Mudah menyimpan dan mengakses.

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Strategic Measurement?
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The identification, development, communication, collection and assessment of selected outcome measures that are directly linked to the organizations performance of its mission and attainment of its vision.

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PENILAIAN STRATEGI
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Dua jenis penilaian: Penilaian pencapaian objektif jangka panjang Penilaian pencapaian objektif jangka pendek

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Penilaian / kajian semula perlu meliputi


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Matlamat strategik. Strategi-strategi. Pelan tindakan / taktikal. Objektif. Indikator (KPI) Prestasi sebenar (berjaya / gagal) Punca kegagalan Tindakan pembetulan dan implikasi masa hadapan (tindakan susulan). Penambahbaikan berterusan.

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Keys to successful Strategic Measurement


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Facts to Failure
No accountability Focus only on efficiencies Use to many measures Focus on the bottom-line only Use measurement to control Never review measures

Fail to use measurement to make strategic, fact-based decisions;use only for control

Keys To Success Assign roles & responsibility Use measurement to understand the organization Use measurement to provide an integrated, focused view of the future Update the measurement system Use measurement to provide quality feedback to the strategic management process

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Renewing The Strategy


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1. It must confirm that the deviation-say, 2. The team must undertake its review without succumbing to blaming, posturing, and finger pointing. Team must rally to its shared vision. Updating strategy according to the nature of threat.
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Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti


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Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (nama sekolah) diwujud, didokumen, dilaksana serta diselanggarakan dengan cara sistematik. Ia juga memberi tumpuan kepada peningkatan secara berterusan terhadap keberkesanan sekolah ABC.

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Pusingan Semula Proses Perancangan Strategik

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Recommendation on revisiting the plan


In the Pre-Planning Phase: Create interview questions based on the top management expectation and maturity of the organization Conduct focus groups to gather manager and supporting staff input Conduct customer review Analyze recent result survey result, & performance Understand result of measurement analysis
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continue
In the planning phase: Vary the brainstorming methods to explore possibilities Ensure that strategic measurement plan development is incorporated Focus on new deployment and implementations based on lessons learned Caution: Revisiting a strategic plan that has been shelfware for a long time is viewed as a chore and may not be taken seriously.
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Bagaimana jika Pemimpin baru?


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Advice: Wait to revisit the strategic plan until the new leader: Assesses the strategic plan and its impact Understands the process of strategic planning Talks with staff and customers Has a sense of major internal issues Has a sense of external drivers Is well enough informed about the organization to make strategic decision
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Punca Kegagalan Dalam Perancangan Strategik


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1. Pihak pengurusan atasan mengandaikan bahawa mereka boleh mendelegasikan fungsi perancangan kepada perancang sahaja. 2. Pihak pengurusan atasan menjadi begitu asyik atau leka didalam problem yang semasa yang telah mereka habiskan dan sehingga tidak ada masa untuk melakukan perancangan jangka masa panjang dan prosesnya telah menjadi sebati dikalangan pihak pengurus dan stafnya.
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3. Gagal untuk membina misi organisasi yang sesuai dan baik, sebagai asas bagi pembinaan plan perancangan jangka panjang.
4. Gagal untuk melakukan andaian yang sepatutnya terhadap personelpersonel yang perlu terlibat dalam proses perancangan.
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5. Gagal untuk mengunakan apa yang dirancang dalam plan perancangan strategik sebagai satu piawaian (standards) untuk mengukur prestasi pengurusan organisasi.

6. Gagal untuk membina iklim dalaman organisasi yang sesuai dan mengalakkan setiap ahli berfikir secara kreatif dan tidak menghalang kepada perancangan yang sistematik.
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7. Mengangapkan bahawa perancangan strategik yang komprehesif ini adalah sesuatu yang berasingan dari keseluruhan proses pengurusan lain dalam organisasi. 8. Memasukkan terlalu banyak perkara formaliti ke dalam sistem yang mana ianya kurang fleksibiliti, kelonggaran, simplisiti dan menghalang kepada kreativiti.
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9. Pihak pengurusan atasan gagal untuk menyemak atau mengenalpasti jabatan atau bahagian manakah yang perlu dibina perancangan jangka panjang .
10. Pihak pengurusan atasan menolak mekanisma perancangan formal tetapi lebih yakin hanya kepada membuat keputusan secara intuitif yang mana akan menimbulkan konflik dengan perancangan formal.
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Why strategic plans either failed or did not live up to expectations


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The need for planning was not widely felt on institution. The leader (headmaster/principal) did not aggressively, actively,& vocally support the planning process. The planning structure was too complicated, took too long, & focused too squarely on processes and not on people. Plans fails when they are on paper rather than imprinted in peoples minds. Think final results of planning is not a product, but an on going process (good planning does not have finality)
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Why strategic plans either failed or did not live up to expectations (2)
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The plan was not built on a realistic situational analysis. The goals were unrealistic or unmeasurable The plan was not well funded Key people were not in place to help implement the plan. The demands of day-to-day activities got in the way of implementing the plan Senior administrators dislike making tough choices and shy away from making unpopular decisions; and The plan did not capture the imagination of the institutions and its stakeholders.
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Conclusion
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Planning succeed when planning becomes part of nature, an element in meetings and conversations with colleagues, a natural part of our lives. In short, planning should so infuse what we do that it is noticed only b its results: tangible, incremental progress toward clearly articulated goals.
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Sekian dan Terima Kasih

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