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Brakes

Manoj Kumar Gupta (2010UME104)

Topics to be presented
Types of Brakes

Types of Actuation Method


Advantage of Disc Brakes ABS & EBD Construction of Tandem Master

Cylinder Brake Booster Brake Bleeding

Types of brakes
Frictional brakes

Divided broadly into "shoe" and "pad" brakes

Rim brake Disc brake Drum brake


Pumping brakes Often used where a pump is already part of the machinery Pumping losses of the engine create some braking Jake brake Electromagnetic brakes Where an electric motor is already part of the machinery Many hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles use the electric motor

as a generator to charge electric batteries and also as a regenerative brake Brake-by-wire Eddy current brakes Electro-mechanical brakes-EWB

Types on the Basis of Mode of Operation..


Mechanical brakes Electric brakes
Use metal wire or rod for transmit power to the brake pad or bush Like rim brake, emergency an electromagnet is used to actuate brake a cam to expand the brake shoes electromagnet is energized by the current flowing from the battery Used in hybrid car by the pressure of compressed air Compressor is used to compress air applied vacuum by exhausting air air compressor is run by engine From oneside of piston power force acts in heavy vehicle to Used on the system to Use hydraulicpiston due difference of pressure transfer the pedal force Uncompressible hydraulic fluid is used with master Replaces the traditional cylinder mechanical control systems with electronic control systems

Air brakes
Vacuum brakes Hydraulic brakes Electromechanical brakes

Commonly used brakes

Caliper friction system

Disc brake

Has a rotor/disk between two pads Caliper squeezes the pads against the disk when the brakes are applied Disk brakes work much better then the drum brakes, as they cool better and apply more pressure
Two types of calipers Two types of Rotor

Floating Vented
Moves during braking cool off faster Single piston than solid Smaller calipers efficient under Lighter lots of hard Compact braking Lightweight

Solid Fix
Mounted stationary Multi piston Less weight Better Used in light performer Larger vehicle calipers Not as stiff as a fixed calliper

Advantage of disc brakes


Better water recovery, are better in the rain Resist brake fading, don't over heat Don't wear away your rim, Aren't affected by debris on the road that can get lodged in your

regular pads Resistance to wear as the discs remain cool even after repeated brake applications. Brake pads are easily replaceable Brake pads can be checked without much dismantling of brake system.

ABS (Anti lock braking system)


To prevent the wheels from locking or skidding under heavy braking Automatically changes the pressure in brake lines to maintain

maximum brake performance just short of locking up the wheels Releases the lock by repeatedly or quickly increasing or decreasing braking force To maintain vehicle control, directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions To maintain steering control under heavy braking.

Components of ABS
Wheel Speed Sensors

ABS Control Module(ECU)


Hydraulic Modulator Pump Motor & Accumulator

Components of ABS.

Why it is more better without Vehicle


Vehicle with ABS
Prevent wheels

ABS
Wheels get locked

locking during a panic stop Less braking distance Steerability of vehicle all the time Rear wheel ABS prevents wheel lockup so that your car stays in a straight line

during sudden stop larger braking distance Unable to steer while sudden stop

EBD(Electronic brake force distribution)


Automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a

vehicle's brakes With EBD, distribution of braking forces between front and rear wheels are optimized Always coupled with ABS EBD may work in conjunction with ABS and Electronic Stability Control ("ESC") to minimize yaw accelerations during turns.

Distribution of braking forces with EBD..

Tandem master cylinder


Basic unit for dual-circuit brake systems A container for brake fluid and pistons Transforms applied brake force through two separate circuits Has a primary piston and a secondary piston Fluid displaced and pressurized by Primary piston also causes

movement of a second piston Front brakes are on different lines then the rear Generally Primary system set for rear brake Secondary piston applies vehicle's front brake Each section of the cylinder has inlet, outlet ports & compensating ports

If primary piston leaks

How it is more safe..???

If secondary piston leaks

Secondary piston works Rear brakes get fail Front brakes will still be functional

Primary piston works Front brakes get fail Rear brakes will still be functional

Brake system splitting concepts Diagonal Front/rear


split split

Advantage: - If one brake circuit fails, the wheels diagonally opposite each other on each axle will be braked Drawback: - If one brake circuit fails, high yaw moments

Advantage: - If one brake circuit fails, only small yaw moments occur owing to the per-axle braking effect Drawback: -If the front axle circuit fails, the remaining braking -power will be low

Valves used in duel system


Metering valve
On vehicles with front disk

Proportioning valve
On vehicles with front disk and rear

and rear drum brakes drum brakes Installed in hydraulic line to In in hydraulic lines to the rear front brakes brakes During light brake Reduces pressure to the rear application, it prevents front brakes during hard braking brakes from applying until During hard braking, vehicle after the rear brakes shoes weight is transmitted to the front, are in contact with the resulting in the need of more drums braking at front Balance the brake system & Its job is to maintain the correct lengthens disc brake lining proportion between line pressure to life the front and rear brakes for Prevent the front disc brake balance braking from carrying all also be used A combination valve can or most of instead of these both valves, bothtwo Diagonal systems require function can

Brake booster
Vacuum present in the inlet manifold is used to generate the extra

pressure needed Located between the brake master cylinder and the brake pedal Increases the force from the pedal to the brakes Uses engine vacuum to aid in braking force A vacuum line from the intake manifold to the brake booster provides a source of vacuum

Brake Bleeding
Bleeding is the process of removal of air from the braking system. When air enters, into the brake system bleeding of brakes has to

be done Since air is compressible so any presence of air inside brake lining does not allow to transmit brake force to apply brakes

New innovative brakes


EWB- electronic wedge brake : same as like disc brake
No bleeding, no filling
Adjustable brake characteristics by software

Magnets and electromagnets instead of friction for stopping power Laser Radar Auto Brake Safety System Regenerative Braking System Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC)