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Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions

Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance

Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions (contd)

Work-related value dimensions Most influential effort to group by cultural values Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries Created maps of pairs of dimensions

Self-perception as individual or part of a group Most widely studied Most complex Dimensions different across cultures
i.e., Asian vs Latin American collectivism

Individualism-Collectivism (contd)
High value on autonomy Individual achievement Privacy

High value on group
Family, clan, organization

Loyalty Devotion Conformity

Masculinity-Femininity Describes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships

Success Assertive acquisition of money/power achievement

Equality of genders Caring for disadvantaged harmony

Power Distance Acceptance of differences in power High-Power Distance Low-Power Distance

Accept position Follow authority Concentrated & centralized authority Hierarchical Avoid concentration of authority Decentralized Fewer layers of management

Uncertainty Avoidance Reaction to ambiguous events

Low Uncertainty Avoidance Embrace unpredictable Less adherence to rules, procedures, or hierarchies Risk taking desirable High Uncertainty Avoidance Threatened by ambiguity Need stable & predictable workplace Reliance on rules

Cultural Maps
Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance & MasculinityFemininity Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance

Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance

Large power distance and collectivism
Asia and Latin America

Small power distance and individualism

Northern Europe and Anglo countries

Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity

Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance

Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance

Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance

Limitation of Hofstedes Dimensions

Missing countries
Estimates values

Ignores differences within clusters