1
CHAPTER 15:
Thermodynamics
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.1 Learning Outcome
Remarks :
Keypoint :
Distinguish between
thermodynamic work done on
the system and work done by
the system.
State and use first law of
thermodynamics,
W U Q + A =
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 > Q
3
15.1.1 Signs for heat, Q and work, W
Sign convention for heat, Q :
Q = positive value
Q = negative value
Heat flow into the system
Heat flow out of the system
3
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 = W
(a)
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 = W
(b)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 = Q
4
Sign convention for work, W:
W = positive value
W = negative value
Work done by the system
Work done on the system
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 > W
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 < W
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 > Q
5
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 > W
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 < W
Q = positive value
Q = negative value
W = positive value
W = negative value
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
6
Air
Compression
Air
Expansion
Air
Initially
Motion of piston
Motion of
piston
Work done by gas (Expansion)
When the air is expanded, the
molecule loses kinetic energy and
does positive work on piston.
Work done on gas(Compression)
When the air is compressed, the
molecule gains kinetic energy and
does negative work on piston.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.1.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system
7
Consider the infinitesimal work
done by the gas (system) during
the small expansion, dx in a
cylinder with a movable piston as
shown in Figure 15.3.
Suppose that the cylinder has a
cross sectional area, A and the
pressure exerted by the gas
(system) at the piston face is P.
Gas
A
A
dx
Initial
Final
Figure 15.3
F
\

=


.

\

=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
P
P
nRT
V
V
nRT W
( )
1 2
V V P PdV W = =
}
0 = =
}
PdV W
pdV
}
15.3 Learning Outcome
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.1 Work done in the thermodynamics system
26
Gas
A
A
dx
Initial
Final
Figure 15.6
F
0 = u
u cos Fdx dW =
where and
PAdx dW =
and dV Adx =
PdV dW =
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
} }
=
2
1
V
V
PdV dW
(15.3)
done work : W
where
pressure gas : P
gas the of volume initial :
1
V
gas the of volume final :
2
V
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system
27
1
P
P
V 0
1
2
( ) 0
1 2 1
> = V V P W
P
V
0
2
P
1
P
1
V
1
2
0 = W
For a change in volume at constant
pressure, P
( )
1 2
V V P W =
V P W A =
Work done at
constant
pressure
For any process in the system which the
volume is constant (no change in volume),
the work done is
0 = W
Work done at constant
volume
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
1
V
2
V
1
P
2
P
P
V
0
1
2
0 > W
Area under graph
= work done by gas
2
V
1
V
2
P
1
P
P
V
0
2
1
0 < W
Compression
Area under graph
= work done on gas
Expansion
When a gas is expanded from V1 to V2
Work done by gas, 2
1
V
V
W pdV =
}
2
1
ln
V
nRT
V
=
2
1
1
V
V
W nRT dV
V
=
}
When a gas is compressed from V1=> V2
Work done on gas,
'
2
'
1
V
V
W pdV =
}
'
2
'
1
1
V
V
W nRT dV
V
=
}
'
2
'
1
ln
V
nRT
V
=
Since V2< V1 the value of work done is ()
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
From the equation of state for an ideal
gas,
Therefore the work done in the
isothermal process which change of
volume from V
1
to V
2
, is given
nRT PV =
V
nRT
P = then
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
}

.

\

=
2
1
V
V
dV
V
nRT
W
}

.

\

=
2
1
1
V
V
dV
V
nRT W


.

\

=
1
2
ln
V
V
nRT W
( )
1 2
ln ln V V nRT W =
(15.9)
 
2
1
ln
V
V
V nRT W =
15.3.3 Work done in Isothermal Process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
For isothermal process, the temperature
of the system remains unchanged, thus
2 2 1 1
V P V P =
2
1
1
2
P
P
V
V
=


.

\

=
2
1
ln
P
P
nRT W
(15.10)
The equation (16.9) can be expressed as
By applying the 1
st
law of
Thermodynamics,thus
W U Q + A =
0 = AU
and
W Q =


.

\

=


.

\

=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
P
P
nRT
V
V
nRT Q
15.3.3 Work done in Isothermal Process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.3 Work done in isobaric process
The work done during the isobaric
process which change of volume from V
1
to V
2
is given by
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
and
constant = P
}
=
2
1
V
V
dV P W
( )
1 2
V V P W =
OR
V P W A =
(15.10)
15.3.3 Work done in isovolumetric
process
Since the volume of the system in
isovolumetric process remains
unchanged, thus
Therefore the work done in the
isovolumetric process is
0 = dV
0 = =
}
PdV W
(15.11)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
A quantity of ideal gas whose ratio of
molar heat capacities is 5/3 has a
temperature of 300 K, volume of 64
10
3
m
3
and pressure of 243 kPa. It is
made to undergo the following three
changes in order:
1 : adiabatic compression to a volume
27 10
3
m
3
,
2 : isothermal expansion to 64 10
3
m
3
,
3 : a return to its original state.
Example 4 :
a. Describe the process 3.
b. Sketch and label a graph of pressure
against volume for the changes
described.
a. Process 3 is a process at constant
volume known as isovolumetric
(isochoric).
b. The graph of gas pressure (P) against
gas volume (V) for the changes
described is shown in Figure 15.7.
3
P
27
Pa) 10 (
4
P
) m 10 (
3 3
V
0
102
K 533
K 300
3 . 24
64
1
2
3
Process 2
Process 3
Process 1
Figure 15.7
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
A vessel of volume 8.00 10
3
m
3
contains an ideal gas at a pressure of 1.14 10
5
Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and the gas expands adiabatically, expelling
some of its original mass until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01
10
5
Pa). The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until the
temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state, the pressure is
1.06 10
5
Pa. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the
adiabatic expansion?
Example 5 :
Solution :
Adiabatic
expansion
Isochoric
process
1
V
1
T
1
P
Initial
2 3
V V =
1 3
T T =
3
P
Final
2
V
2
T
2
P
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Solution :
When the gas expands adiabatically, it does positive work.
Thus
The internal energy of the gas is reduced to provide the
necessary energy to do work. Since the internal energy is
proportional to the absolute temperature hence the
temperature decreases and resulting a temperature change.
W U Q + A =
W U = A
0 = Q
and
A vessel of volume 8.00 10
3
m
3
contains an ideal gas at a pressure of 1.14 10
5
Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and the gas expands adiabatically, expelling
some of its original mass until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01
10
5
Pa). The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until the
temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state, the pressure is
1.06 10
5
Pa. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the
adiabatic expansion?
Example 5 :
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
a. Write an expression representing
i. the 1
st
law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the
symbols.
ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]
b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal
gas. Label and show clearly the four thermodynamics process.
[5 marks]
c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed
isothermally until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed
to expand adiabatically until its new volume is 9V. If P, V and for
the gas is 1.2 10
5
Pa,1.0 10
2
m
3
and 5/3 respectively, calculate
i. the final pressure of the gas.
ii. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression.
(Examination Question Intake 2003/2004) [7 marks]
Example 6 :
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
a. Write an expression representing
i. the 1
st
law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the
symbols.
ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]
Example 6 :
Solution :
a. i. 1
st
law of thermodynamics:
ii. Work done at variable pressure:
W U Q + A =
ferred heat trans of quantity : Q
energy internal in change : U A where
done work : W


.

\

=
1
2
ln
V
V
nRT W
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
OR
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Example 6 :
Solution :
b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal gas. Label and
show clearly the four thermodynamics process.
[5 marks]
b. PV diagram below represents four thermodynamic processes:
3
T
1
T
P
V
A
P
0
A
V
4
T
2
T
B
E
D
C
A
Isobaric process
Isochoric process
Isothermal process
adiabatic process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Example 6 :
Solution :
c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed isothermally
until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed to expand adiabatically until its
new volume is 9V. If P, V and for the gas is 1.2 10
5
Pa,1.0 10
2
m
3
and 5/3
respectively, calculate
i. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression. [7 marks]

.

\

=
V
V
nRT W
1
ln
J 10 32 . 1
3
= W




.

\

=
V
V
PV W
3
ln
PV nRT = and
( )( )

.

\

=
3
1
ln 10 0 . 1 10 2 . 1
2 5
W
i. The work done during the isothermal compression is
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
THE END
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