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Physics SF 016 Chapter 15 Chapter 16

1
CHAPTER 15:
Thermodynamics

Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.1 Learning Outcome
Remarks :
Keypoint :

Distinguish between
thermodynamic work done on
the system and work done by
the system.
State and use first law of
thermodynamics,

W U Q + A =
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 > Q
3
15.1.1 Signs for heat, Q and work, W

Sign convention for heat, Q :

Q = positive value






Q = negative value





Heat flow into the system
Heat flow out of the system
3
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 = W
(a)
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 = W
(b)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 = Q
4
Sign convention for work, W:

W = positive value








W = negative value
Work done by the system
Work done on the system
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 > W
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 < W
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
0 > Q
5
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 > W
Surroundings
(environment)
System
0 < W
Q = positive value
Q = negative value
W = positive value
W = negative value
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
6
Air
Compression
Air
Expansion
Air
Initially
Motion of piston
Motion of
piston

Work done by gas (Expansion)

When the air is expanded, the
molecule loses kinetic energy and
does positive work on piston.

Work done on gas(Compression)

When the air is compressed, the
molecule gains kinetic energy and
does negative work on piston.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.1.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system
7
Consider the infinitesimal work
done by the gas (system) during
the small expansion, dx in a
cylinder with a movable piston as
shown in Figure 15.3.


Suppose that the cylinder has a
cross sectional area, A and the
pressure exerted by the gas
(system) at the piston face is P.
Gas
A
A
dx
Initial
Final
Figure 15.3
F

Physics SF 016 Chapter 15


15.1.3 First law of thermodynamics
It states that : The heat (Q) supplied to a system is equal to the increase in the
internal energy (AU) of the system plus the work done (W) by the system on its
surroundings.
W U Q + A =
supplied heat of quantity : Q
energy internal initial :
1
U
where
energy internal final :
2
U
done work : W
and
1 2
U U U = A
energy internal in the change : U A
(15.2)
For infinitesimal change in the energy,
dW dU dQ + =
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
The first law of thermodynamics is
a generalization of the principle of
conservation of energy to include
energy transfer through heat as well
as mechanical work.


The change in the internal energy
(AU) of a system during any
thermodynamic process is
independent of path. For example a
thermodynamics system goes from
state 1 to state 2 as shown in Figure
16.5.
2
P
1
V
3
4
1
P
2
V
Figure 15.4
2
1
P
V
0
2 3 1 2 4 1 2 1
A = A = A U U U
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
10







A vessel contains an ideal gas in condition A, as shown in Figure
16.6. When the condition of the gas changes from A to that of B,
the gas system undergoes a heat transfer of 10.5 kJ. When the gas
in condition B changes to condition C, there is a heat transfer of
3.2 kJ. Calculate
a. the work done in the process ABC,
b. the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process ABC,
c. the work done in the process ADC,
d. the total amount of heat transferred in the process ADC.
Example 1 :
0 . 2
) kPa ( P
) m 10 (
3 2
V
0 . 4
300
0
B
C
D
A
150
Figure 15.6
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Calculate:
a. the work done in the process ABC,

b. the change in the internal energy
of the gas in the process ABC,

c. the work done in the process ADC
,
d. the total amount of heat
transferred in the process ADC.
a. The work done in the process ABC is
given by :
BC AB ABC
W W W + =
but 0
BC
= W
( )
A B A ABC
V V P W =
( )
2 2 3
ABC
10 0 . 2 10 0 . 4 10 150

= W
J 3000
ABC
= W
W = P.dV
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
b. By applying the 1
st
law of
thermodynamics for ABC, thus
ABC ABC ABC
W U Q + A =
( )
ABC BC AB ABC
W Q Q U + = A
J 10 07 . 1
4
ABC
= AU
( ) 3000 10 2 . 3 10 5 . 10
3 3
ABC
+ = AU
Calculate:
a. the work done in the process ABC,

b. the change in the internal energy
of the gas in the process ABC,

c. the work done in the process ADC
,
d. the total amount of heat
transferred in the process ADC.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
c. The work done in the process ADC is
given by
DC AD ADC
W W W + =
but
0
AD
= W
( )
D C D ADC
V V P W =
( )
2 2 3
ADC
10 0 . 2 10 0 . 4 10 300

= W
J 6000
ADC
= W
Calculate:
a. the work done in the process ABC,

b. the change in the internal energy
of the gas in the process ABC,

c. the work done in the process ADC
,
d. the total amount of heat
transferred in the process ADC.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
d. By applying the 1
st
law of
thermodynamics for ADC, thus
ADC ADC ADC
W U Q + A =
ADC ABC ADC
W U Q + A =
J 10 67 . 1
4
ADC
= Q
6000 10 07 . 1
4
ADC
+ = Q
and
ABC ADC
U U A = A
Calculate:
a. the work done in the process ABC,

b. the change in the internal energy
of the gas in the process ABC,

c. the work done in the process ADC
,
d. the total amount of heat
transferred in the process ADC.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15


Thermodynamics processes (1 hours)
Remarks :
Keypoint :
Define the following thermodynamics
processes:
i) Isothermal, U= 0
ii) Isovolumetric, W = 0
iii) Isobaric, P = 0
iv) Adiabatic, Q = 0

Sketch PV graph to distinguish
between isothermal process and
adiabatic process.

15.2 Learning Outcome
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
There are four specific kinds of thermodynamic
processes. It is :

Isothermal process

Isovolumetric @ Isochoric process

Isobaric process

Adiabatic process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.2.1 Isothermal process
is defined as a process that occurs at
constant temperature.
0 = AU
W Q =
W U Q + A =
Thus,
Isothermal changes
When a gas expands or compresses
isothermally (constant temperature)
thus
constant = PV
(16.3)
Equation (16.3) can be expressed as


If the gas expand isothermally, thus
V
2
>V
1



If the gas compress isothermally, thus
V
2
<V
1
2 2 1 1
V P V P =
W = positive
W = negative
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15


is defined as a process that occurs
without heat transfer into or out of a
system i.e.










For example, the compression stroke in
an internal combustion engine is an
approximately adiabatic process.
W U U U = = A
1 2
0 = Q
W U Q + A = thus
Notes :
For Adiabatic expansion
(V
2
>V
1
), W = positive value
but AU =negative value hence
the internal energy of the
system decreases.


For Adiabatic compression
(V
2
<V
1
), W = negative value
but AU =positive value hence
the internal energy of the
system increases.
15.2.2 Adiabatic Process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.2.3 Isovolumetric @
Isochoric
is defined as a process that occurs at
constant volume i.e.









In an isochoric process, all the energy
added as heat remains in the system
as an increase in the internal energy thus
the temperature of the system increases.

For example, heating a gas in a closed
constant volume container is an isochoric
process.
W U Q + A =
0 = W
thus
1 2
U U U Q = A =
15.2.4 Isobaric

is defined as a process that occurs at
constant pressure i.e.













For example, boiling water at constant
pressure is an isobaric process.
W U Q + A =
V P W A =
thus
V P U Q A + A =
0 = AP
and
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.2.4 Pressure-Volume diagram (graph) for thermodynamic processes
Figure 15.5 shows a PV diagram for each
thermodynamic process for a constant
amount of an ideal gas.
1
V
2
P
3
P
3
V
P
V
0
1
P
4
T
3
T
1
T
2
T
B
D
2
V
E
1 2 3 4
T T T T > > >
A
Figure 16.8
C
Path AB
Isothermal process (TB=TA)
Path AC
Path AD
Path AE
Adiabatic process (TC<TA)
Isochoric process (TD<TA)
Isobaric process (TE>TA)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
From the Figure 15.5,
For comparison between the
isothermal (AB) and adiabatic
expansions (AC):
The temperature fall (T
C
<T
B
) which
accompanies the adiabatic
expansion results in a lower final
pressure than that produced by the
isothermal expansion (P
C
<P
B
).

The area under the isothermal is
greater than that under the
adiabatic, i.e. more work is done by
the isothermal expansion than by
the adiabatic expansion.

The adiabatic through any point is
steeper than the isothermal through
that point.
2
P
3
P
P
V
0
1
P
4
T
3
T
1
T
2
T
B
D
E
A
C
Figure 15.5 shows a PV diagram for each
thermodynamic process for a constant
amount of an ideal gas.
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15


Air is contained in a cylinder by a frictionless gas-tight piston.

a. Calculate the work done by the air as it expands from a
volume of 0.015 m
3
to a volume of 0.027 m
3
at a
constant pressure of 2.0 10
5
Pa.

b. Determine the final pressure of the air if it starts from the
same initial conditions as in (a) and expanding by the same
amount, the change occurs isothermally.


Example 3 :
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15

Air is contained in a cylinder by a
frictionless gas-tight piston.

a. Calculate the work done by the air as
it expands from a volume of 0.015 m
3
to
a volume of 0.027 m
3
at a constant
pressure of 2.0 10
5
Pa.

b. Determine the final pressure of the air
if it starts from the same initial
conditions as in (a) and expanding by the
same amount, the change occurs
isothermally
Example 3 :
Solution :
a. Given




The work done by the air is:

Pa 10 0 . 2
; m 027 . 0 ; m 015 . 0
5
1
3
2
3
1
=
= =
P
V V
( )
1 2 1
V V P W =
( ) 015 . 0 027 . 0 10 0 . 2
5
= W
J 2400 = W
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Example 3 :
b. The final pressure for the isothermal
process is






2 2 1 1
V P V P =
( )( ) ( ) 027 . 0 015 . 0 10 0 . 2
2
5
P =
Pa 10 11 . 1
5
2
= P

Air is contained in a cylinder by a
frictionless gas-tight piston.

a. Calculate the work done by the air as
it expands from a volume of 0.015 m
3
to
a volume of 0.027 m
3
at a constant
pressure of 2.0 10
5
Pa.

b. Determine the final pressure of the air
if it starts from the same initial
conditions as in (a) and expanding by the
same amount, the change occurs
isothermally
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
25
Remarks :
Keypoint :


Derive expression for work, W =
Determine work from the area under p-V graph.
Derive the equation of work done in isothermal,
isovolumetric and isobaric processes.
Calculate work done in :-
isothermal process and use



isobaric process, use


isovolumetric process, use
Thermodynamics work (4 hour)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
P
P
nRT
V
V
nRT W
( )
1 2
V V P PdV W = =
}
0 = =
}
PdV W
pdV
}
15.3 Learning Outcome
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.1 Work done in the thermodynamics system
26
Gas
A
A
dx
Initial
Final
Figure 15.6
F

The work, dW done by the gas is


given by





In a finite change of volume from
V
1
to V
2
,

PA F =

0 = u
u cos Fdx dW =
where and
PAdx dW =
and dV Adx =
PdV dW =
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
} }
=
2
1
V
V
PdV dW
(15.3)
done work : W
where
pressure gas : P
gas the of volume initial :
1
V
gas the of volume final :
2
V
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.2 Work done in the thermodynamics system
27
1
P
P
V 0
1
2
( ) 0
1 2 1
> = V V P W
P
V
0
2
P
1
P
1
V
1
2
0 = W
For a change in volume at constant
pressure, P
( )
1 2
V V P W =
V P W A =
Work done at
constant
pressure
For any process in the system which the
volume is constant (no change in volume),
the work done is
0 = W
Work done at constant
volume
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
1
V
2
V
1
P
2
P
P
V
0
1
2
0 > W
Area under graph
= work done by gas
2
V
1
V
2
P
1
P
P
V
0
2
1
0 < W
Compression
Area under graph
= work done on gas
Expansion
When a gas is expanded from V1 to V2
Work done by gas, 2
1
V
V
W pdV =
}
2
1
ln
V
nRT
V
=
2
1
1
V
V
W nRT dV
V
=
}
When a gas is compressed from V1=> V2
Work done on gas,
'
2
'
1
V
V
W pdV =
}
'
2
'
1
1
V
V
W nRT dV
V
=
}
'
2
'
1
ln
V
nRT
V
=
Since V2< V1 the value of work done is (-)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15


From the equation of state for an ideal
gas,



Therefore the work done in the
isothermal process which change of
volume from V
1
to V
2
, is given
nRT PV =
V
nRT
P = then
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
}
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
V
V
dV
V
nRT
W
}
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
V
V
dV
V
nRT W
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
ln
V
V
nRT W
( )
1 2
ln ln V V nRT W =
(15.9)
| |
2
1
ln
V
V
V nRT W =
15.3.3 Work done in Isothermal Process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
For isothermal process, the temperature
of the system remains unchanged, thus
2 2 1 1
V P V P =
2
1
1
2
P
P
V
V
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
ln
P
P
nRT W
(15.10)
The equation (16.9) can be expressed as
By applying the 1
st
law of
Thermodynamics,thus
W U Q + A =
0 = AU
and
W Q =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
P
P
nRT
V
V
nRT Q
15.3.3 Work done in Isothermal Process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
15.3.3 Work done in isobaric process
The work done during the isobaric
process which change of volume from V
1

to V
2
is given by
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
and
constant = P
}
=
2
1
V
V
dV P W
( )
1 2
V V P W =
OR
V P W A =
(15.10)
15.3.3 Work done in isovolumetric
process

Since the volume of the system in
isovolumetric process remains
unchanged, thus



Therefore the work done in the
isovolumetric process is
0 = dV
0 = =
}
PdV W
(15.11)
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
A quantity of ideal gas whose ratio of
molar heat capacities is 5/3 has a
temperature of 300 K, volume of 64
10
3
m
3
and pressure of 243 kPa. It is
made to undergo the following three
changes in order:
1 : adiabatic compression to a volume
27 10
3
m
3
,
2 : isothermal expansion to 64 10
3
m
3
,
3 : a return to its original state.

Example 4 :
a. Describe the process 3.
b. Sketch and label a graph of pressure
against volume for the changes
described.
a. Process 3 is a process at constant
volume known as isovolumetric
(isochoric).
b. The graph of gas pressure (P) against
gas volume (V) for the changes
described is shown in Figure 15.7.
3
P
27
Pa) 10 (
4
P
) m 10 (
3 3
V
0
102
K 533
K 300
3 . 24
64
1
2
3
Process 2
Process 3
Process 1
Figure 15.7
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
A vessel of volume 8.00 10
3
m
3
contains an ideal gas at a pressure of 1.14 10
5

Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and the gas expands adiabatically, expelling
some of its original mass until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01
10
5
Pa). The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until the
temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state, the pressure is
1.06 10
5
Pa. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the
adiabatic expansion?
Example 5 :
Solution :
Adiabatic
expansion
Isochoric
process
1
V
1
T
1
P
Initial
2 3
V V =
1 3
T T =
3
P
Final
2
V
2
T
2
P
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Solution :
When the gas expands adiabatically, it does positive work.
Thus


The internal energy of the gas is reduced to provide the
necessary energy to do work. Since the internal energy is
proportional to the absolute temperature hence the
temperature decreases and resulting a temperature change.

W U Q + A =
W U = A
0 = Q
and
A vessel of volume 8.00 10
3
m
3
contains an ideal gas at a pressure of 1.14 10
5

Pa. A stopcock in the vessel is opened and the gas expands adiabatically, expelling
some of its original mass until its pressure is equal to that outside the vessel (1.01
10
5
Pa). The stopcock is then closed and the vessel is allowed to stand until the
temperature returns to its original value. In this equilibrium state, the pressure is
1.06 10
5
Pa. Explain why there was a temperature change as a result of the
adiabatic expansion?
Example 5 :
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
a. Write an expression representing
i. the 1
st
law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the
symbols.
ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]
b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal
gas. Label and show clearly the four thermodynamics process.
[5 marks]
c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed
isothermally until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed
to expand adiabatically until its new volume is 9V. If P, V and for
the gas is 1.2 10
5
Pa,1.0 10
2
m
3
and 5/3 respectively, calculate
i. the final pressure of the gas.
ii. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression.
(Examination Question Intake 2003/2004) [7 marks]
Example 6 :
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
a. Write an expression representing
i. the 1
st
law of thermodynamics and state the meaning of all the
symbols.
ii. the work done by an ideal gas at variable pressure. [3 marks]
Example 6 :
Solution :
a. i. 1
st
law of thermodynamics:





ii. Work done at variable pressure:
W U Q + A =
ferred heat trans of quantity : Q
energy internal in change : U A where
done work : W
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
ln
V
V
nRT W
}
=
2
1
V
V
PdV W
OR
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Example 6 :
Solution :
b. Sketch a graph of pressure P versus volume V of 1 mole of ideal gas. Label and
show clearly the four thermodynamics process.
[5 marks]
b. PV diagram below represents four thermodynamic processes:
3
T
1
T
P
V
A
P
0
A
V
4
T
2
T
B
E
D
C
A
Isobaric process
Isochoric process
Isothermal process
adiabatic process
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
Example 6 :
Solution :
c. A monatomic ideal gas at pressure P and volume V is compressed isothermally
until its new pressure is 3P. The gas is then allowed to expand adiabatically until its
new volume is 9V. If P, V and for the gas is 1.2 10
5
Pa,1.0 10
2
m
3
and 5/3
respectively, calculate
i. the work done on the gas during isothermal compression. [7 marks]
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
V
nRT W
1
ln
J 10 32 . 1
3
= W
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
V
PV W
3
ln
PV nRT = and
( )( )
|
.
|

\
|
=

3
1
ln 10 0 . 1 10 2 . 1
2 5
W
i. The work done during the isothermal compression is
Physics SF 016 Chapter 15
THE END
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