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THE HUMAN EYE

IRIS
A circular sheet of muscles Contains a pigment giving the eye its colour Amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the circular muscles and radical muscles in the iris

PUPIL
A hole in the centre of the iris Allows light to enter the eye

SCLERA / SCLEROTIC COAT


A tough, white outer covering of the eyeball Continuous with the cornea Protects eyeball from mechanical damage

LENS
A transparent, circular and biconvex structure Elastic and changes its shape or thickness to refract light onto the retina

CHOROID
Middle layer of the eyeball (between sclera and retina) Two functions: Pigmented black to prevent internal reflection of light Contains blood vessels bringing oxygen and nutrients to the eyeball and remove metabolic waste products

CILIARY BODY
A thickened region at the front end of the choroid Contains ciliary muscles which control the curvature of the lens

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT
A tissue that attaches the edge of the lens to the ciliary body

AQUEOUS CHAMBER
Space between lens and cornea This chamber is filled with aqueous humour, a transparent watery fluid that keeps the eyeball firm and helps to refract light into the pupil

RETINA
Innermost layer of the eyeball The light-sensitive layer on which images are formed Contains light-sensitive cells (photoreceptors) which consist of rods and cones Cones enable us to see colours in bright light while rods enable us to see in black and white in dim light Photoreceptors are connected to the nerve-endings from the optic nerve

FOVEA
A small yellow depression in the retina situated directly behind the lens Where images are focused Contains greatest concentration of cones, but no rods Enabling a person to have detailed colour vision in bright light

After light enters the pupil, it hits the lens. The lens sits behind the iris and is clear and colorless. The lens' job is to focus light rays on the back of the eyeball (retina)

I cant see
Sometimes someone's eyeball changes shape and the cornea, lens, and retina no longer work perfectly as a team. The person's eye may focus on what it sees in front of or behind the retina, instead of on the retina. When this happens, some of what the person sees will be out of focus.

Eye Glasses

To correct this fuzzy vision, many people, including many kids, wear glasses. Glasses help the eyes focus images correctly on the retina and allow someone to see clearly. As adults get older, their eyes change shape and they often need glasses to see things up close or far away. Most older people you know - like your grandparents - probably wear glasses.

Notice geese are clear but the city is blurry.

MYOPIA
An eye that is too long or a cornea that is too steep causes myopia (or nearsightedness). In nearsighted eyes, the image isn't focused precisely inside the eye, causing blurring in the distance. The more nearsighted you are, the more blurred the distant object appears, and the thicker your glasses need to be. Most nearsighted people feel that their condition is severe, due to their dependence on glasses and contact lenses. In fact, only one in ten nearsighted individuals are actually in the "severe" or "extreme" categories.

What is blurry this time?

FAR-SIGHTED
Hyperopia An eye that is too short, or a cornea that is not steep enough causes hyperopia (or farsightedness). People with hyperopia see blurry when looking at close objects. Young people can slightly overcome hyperopia by using their focusing muscles to make the image clear. This gets harder as they get older. Currently, there are restricted options to correct hyperopia. Most operations are still under development.