Anda di halaman 1dari 22

Metamorphic Rocks

Definitions

Metamorphic Rock
- "Meta"= Change (Grk) - "Morph"= form (Grk) - a rock that

has been changed from its original form ( parent ) by heat , pressure , and fluid activity into a new rock ( daughter ).

Heat
Sources Include..... Sources Include.....
Magma Magma
- temperature of magma - temperature of magma - composition of magma - composition of magma - temperature increases with depth of burial - temperature increases with depth of burial - core of Earth is warmer than outer crust - core of Earth is warmer than outer crust

Geothermal gradient Geothermal gradient

Lithostatic Lithostatic

Uniform Pressure vs Directed Pressure Uniform Pressure


- "Lithos"= rock, static= unchanged (pressure) - "Lithos"= rock, static= unchanged (pressure) - uniform (aka non-directed) - uniform (aka non-directed) - equal intensity from all directions by rocks - equal intensity from all directions by rocks

Directed Pressure one direction of squeezing is much stronger than the others Minerals align themselves to reduce stress.

Types of Metamorphism
Contact Contact
- caused by igneous activity - caused by igneous activity

Dynamic Dynamic

- aka cataclastic - aka cataclastic - associated with faults & earthquake zones - associated with faults & earthquake zones

Regional Regional

- caused by tremendous pressures - caused by tremendous pressures associated with tectonic plate activity associated with tectonic plate activity

Contact Metamorphism
Igneous Intrusions Igneous Intrusions
- size and type of magma important - size and type of magma important - heat decreases away from magma - heat decreases away from magma
> forms a zone of altered country rocks called > forms a zone of altered country rocks called Aureoles Aureoles > mafic magma hotter than felsic > mafic magma hotter than felsic

Sometimes creates a metamorphic rock called a hornfels -in essence a cooked rock

Hornfels

Dynamic Metamorphism

aka Cataclastic Metamorphism Metamorphism associated with Fault Zones associated with Fault Zones

- Places where the Earth's crust ruptured - Places where the Earth's crust ruptured - Rock pulverized - Rock pulverized
> heat and pressure come from movement along the > heat and pressure come from movement along the Fault Fault

resultant rock is known as a Mylonite resultant rock is known as a Mylonite

Regional Metamorphism
Most common form of metamorphism Most common form of metamorphism caused by large scale forces caused by large scale forces
- lithospheric plate collision - lithospheric plate collision

covers very large areas covers very large areas

- metamorphic belts or zones - metamorphic belts or zones - Zones are characterized by - Zones are characterized by

Index Minerals Index Minerals

> form under specific temperatures and pressures > form under specific temperatures and pressures > metamorphic facies > metamorphic facies

commonly associated with commonly associated with

- shields: Mountains: of crystalline rocks Shields andstable areas areas of crystalline rocks

Metamorphic Textures
Foliated Foliated
- Folios = page or leaf-like - Folios = page or leaf-like - rock has distinct banding or layering - rock has distinct banding or layering - formed under directed pressure - formed under directed pressure
> often not smooth like in sedimentary rocks > often not smooth like in sedimentary rocks

Non-foliated Non-foliated

- no distinct layering character - no distinct layering character - often a massive crystalline texture - often a massive crystalline texture - formed under uniform pressures - formed under uniform pressures

Foliated Texture

Foliated Textures
Slatey Slatey
- looks like blackboard - looks like blackboard - smooth, thin layering - smooth, thin layering - breaks into flat slabs - breaks into flat slabs - no mineral grains visible - no mineral grains visible
> referred to as slatey cleavage > referred to as slatey cleavage

Schistose Schistose

> dull surface > dull surface

- distinct bands of minerals - visible mineral - visible grains grains - may have shiny - may have shiny appearance
> garnets, staurolites > garnets, staurolites

> due to mica minerals > due to mica minerals

Phyllitic Phyllitic

- looks like waxed surface - looks like waxed surface - may have little "waves" on - may have little "waves" on surface surface - some small grains visible - some small grains visible
> referred to as > referred to as crenulations crenulations > has a "sheen" to it > has a "sheen" to it

Gneissic Gneissic

- larger grains - larger grains - may look like igneous rock - may look like igneous rock - may have crude banding - may have crude banding - different minerals than - different minerals than schistose schistose
> intensely distorted > intensely distorted

Foliated MM Rocks

slate

phyllite

schist

gneiss
MM Rocks that could form as a shale (sedimentary) parent rock is MM Rocks that could form as a shale (sedimentary) parent rock is exposed to increasing directed pressure and temperature

Migmatite

Migmatite- note blobs of quartz

Non-foliated Rocks
Marble:

- metamorphosed limestone

Quartzite: Quartzite:

- metamorphosed - metamorphosed quartz sandstone quartz sandstone

Environment of Formation- EOF


look for specific minerals Map out where those minerals are found

reconstruct T & P for given minerals


Find a modern setting that has similar T & P

using Uniformitarianism

Metamorphic Zones

Metamorphic Zones-Map Metamorphic Zones-Map

Metamorphic Facies

distinctive metamorphic lithologies that occur in well distinctive metamorphic lithologies that occur in well defined areas and named after the key rocks found defined areas and named after the key rocks found

Metamorphic Zones
Metamorphism is common along most plate boundaries like this.