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Chapter 1

Exploring Life

PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition


Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Figure 1.1

Lectures by Chris Romero


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Biology is the study of life.


All living organisms share certain general properties that separate them from nonliving things. Properties of Life Cellular organization Reproduction Metabolism Homeostasis Heredity Responsiveness Growth and development Interdependence
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Some properties of life

(a) Order

(b) Evolutionary adaptation (c) Response to the environment

(d) Regulation

(e) Energy processing

(f) Growth and development

(g) Reproduction

Figure 1.2
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Characteristics of Life

ORDER (Cellular organization)


every living thing is composed of one or more tiny, highly organized structures with thin membrane coverings, called: cells
the cell is the smallest unit capable of all life functions
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The study of life extends from the microscope scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet
9 Organelles
Cell 1 m

8 Cells

Atoms

10 m

10 Molecules

7 Tissues
50 m

6 Organs and organ systems


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e 1.3

The hierarchy of life extends through many levels of biological organization

From the biosphere to organisms


1 The biosphere

2. Ecosystem

3. Biome

4. Community

5. Population
Figure 1.3
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The CELL is basic unit of life


Is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life

Figure 1.5
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25 m

A Closer Look at Cells The first cells were observed and named by Robert Hooke in 1665 from a slice of cork. Anton van Leeuwenhoek first saw singlecelled organisms in pond water and observed cells in blood and sperm.

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A Closer Look at Cells, continued In 1839, Matthais Schleiden and Theodor Schwann extrapolated from their own microscopic research and that of others to propose the cell theory.
The cell theory postulates that all living things consist of cells and that all cells come from other cells. New cells are produced by the division of existing cells, the critical process in reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms.
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A Closer Look at Cells, continued All cells share two main characteristics
They are all enclosed by a plasma membrane
Sperm cell

Nuclei containing DNA

Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents

Embyros cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents

Egg cell
Figure 1.6

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A Closer Look at Cells, continued All cells share the molecular structure of DNA
They all contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes which program the cells production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring in a process called Figure 1.7 HEREDITY
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Nucleus DNA

Cell Nucleotide
A C T A T A C C G T A G T A

(a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA.Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix.

(b) Single strand of DNA. letters are simple symbo small section of one chai Genetic information is e of the four types of nucle abbreviated here as A, T

A Closer Look at Cells, continued There are TWO main forms of cells
EUKARYOTIC cells are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-bound organelles
EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIC CELL
DNA (no nucleus) Membrane

Membrane
Cytoplasm

Organelles Figure 1.8


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Nucleus (contains DNA)

1 m

A Closer Look at Cells, continued

There are TWO main forms of cells


PROKARYOTIC cells lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells
EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Membrane Cytoplasm

Organelles

Figure 1.8

Nucleus (contains DNA)

1 m

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Characteristics of Life

Adaptation
All living things respond and adjust to the environment Organisms are open systems that interact with other organisms as well as the nonliving factors of an environment
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A Closer Look at Adaptation of Biological Systems Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts
A system is a combination of components that form a more complex organization Due to increasing complexity new properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order:

EMERGENT PROPERTIES

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Feedback Regulation in Biological Systems A kind of supply-and-demand adaptation that applies to some of the dynamics of biological systems
Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems, often the output or product of a process affects that very process. TWO types of feedback:
Negative Feedback Positive Feedback

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A closer look at Adaptation, continued Negative Feedback Response


An accumulation of an end product slows the process that produces that product
A Enzyme 1 B Enzyme 2 C Enzyme 3 D D D D D D D D D C Negative feedback A Enzyme 1 B

D
Figure 1.11

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A closer look at Adaptation, continued Positive Feedback Response


The end product speeds up production
W Enzyme 4 X Enzyme 5 Y Enzyme 6 Z Z Z
Figure 1.12
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W Enzyme 4 Positive feedback X Enzyme 5 Y Enzyme 6 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

Z
Z

Systems vs. Reductionism Biology Systems biology


Seeks to create models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems With such models scientists will be able to predict how a change in one part of a system will affect the rest of the system

Reductionism biology
Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
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Reductionism breaks systems down into their parts


Outer membrane and cell surface Cytoplasm Nucleus

CELL

Figure 1.10
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A closer look at Reductionism The study of DNA structure is an example of reductionism


Understanding DNA has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome Project

Figure 1.9
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Lab: Scientific Investigations Questions

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Why study themes of Biology? Biology is Multidisciplinary


Involves many different sciences: chemistry, ecology, physics, psychology, etc. is an ever expanding body of knowledge too much to memorize it all so need to generalize create a framework upon which to organize new knowledge themes are the key to understanding the nature of living organisms
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Eleven themes that unify biology

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Themes of Biology
Science as a process of inquiry
questioning & investigation Evolution Energy transfer Continuity & Change Relationship of structure to function Regulation Interdependence in nature Science, technology & society
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Characteristics of Life

Energy Utilization
Activities of life require organisms to perform work, which depends on an energy source The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes: Cycling of nutrients Flow of energy
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A closer look at Energy Utilization

Metabolism
The sum of all the chemical reactions carried out in an organism

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A closer look at Energy Utilization

All organisms cycle nutrients such that energy flows through an ecosystem usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat and often involves transformation of one form to another
Sunlight Ecosystem Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Heat Chemical energy

Consumers (including animals)

Figure 1.4
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Heat

Evolution explains unity & diversity

Unity- what do organisms have in common &


why do similarities exist?
common biochemistry & physiology
evolutionary relationships connect all life through common ancestry

Diversity - but why are there


differences?
adaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments through natural selection
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A closer look at Diversity Taxonomy


Is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according to a system of broader and broader groups
Ursus Species Genus Family americanus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia

Order

Class

Phylum

Kingdom

Domain

Chordata

Animalia

Figure 1.14
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Eukarya

A closer look at Diversity Lifes three domains: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes


Archea

Eubacteria
Eukarya
Bacteria are the most diverse 4 m and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shaped structures in this photo is a bacterial cell.
Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Plantae consists of are unicellular eukaryotes and 100 m multicellula eukaryotes that carry their relatively simple multicellular out photosynthesis, the conversion relatives.Pictured here is an assortment of of light energy to food. protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protists into several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity.

DOMAIN ARCHAEA

Figure 1.15

Many of the prokaryotes known 0.5 m as archaea live in Earths extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photo shows a colony composed of many cells.

Kindom Fungi is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members, such as this mushroom, which absorb nutrientsafter decomposing organic material.

Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms.

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A closer look at Unity in the Diversity of Life As diverse as life is there is also evidence of remarkable unity: cell structure, DNA, metabolism, etc
15 m

1.0 m

Cilia of Paramecium. The cilia of Paramecium propel the cell through pond water.
5 m Cross section of cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope

Figure 1.16

Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus upward.

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A closer look at Evolution The evolutionary view of life came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
Descent with modification Natural selection

Figure 1.19
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Figure 1.18

A closer look at Natural Selection Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments
Population of organisms

Hereditary variations

Overproduction and struggle for existence

Differences in reproductive success

Figure 1.20
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Evolution of adaptations in the population

A closer look at Natural Selection


Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs when a populations heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others
1 Populations with varied inherited traits

2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits.

3 Reproduction of survivors.

Figure 1.21

4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success.

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A closer look at Natural Selection The products of natural selection are often exquisite adaptations of organisms to the special circumstances of their way of life and their environment
All of life is connected through evolutionary history

Figure 1.22
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Characteristics of Life

Structure & Function Correlation Many related organisms have very similar anatomical features, adapted for their specific ways of life
Such examples of kinship connect lifes unity in diversity to Darwins concept of descent with modification Form fits Function at all levels of biological organization
Large Small Large ground finch Large cactus ground tree finch Green Gray ground finch finch Camarhynchus Geospiza Geospiza Sharp-beaked Medium warbler warbler Woodpecker Medium magnirostris psitacula Geospiza fuliginosa tree finch ground finchconirostrisground Cactus finch finch finch CerthideaCerthidea Geospiza Cactospiza Camarhynchus finch ground olivacea fusca Geospiza Mangrove difficilis finch pauper pallida Small tree finch finch fortis Geospiza Camarhynchus Cactospiza scandens parvulus Vegetarian heliobates Seed eater Cactus flower Seed eater finch eater Platyspiza crassirostris Insect eaters Bud eater Ground finches Tree finches Warbler finches

Figure 1.23
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Common ancestor from South American mainland

Lab: Scientific Investigations - Hypothesis

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Lab: SciInvest - Prediction

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Lab: SciInvest - Control

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Scientific Inquiry The process of science includes observationalbased discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis-based inquiry
At the heart of science is inquiry: a search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions Biology blends two main processes of scientific inquiry

Discovery science
Hypothesis-based science
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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry Discovery science


Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of two types of data: Quantitative Data uses measurements

Qualitative Data uses descriptors

Figure 1.24
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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry Two Types of Scientific Reasoning:


Inductive Reasoning

Scientists derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations


Deductive Reasoning Logic flows from the general to the specific

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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry In science, inquiry that asks specific questions usually involves the proposing and testing of hypothetical explanations, or hypotheses
In science, a hypothesis is a tentative answer to a well-framed question, an explanation on trial that makes predictions that can be tested A scientific hypothesis must have two important qualities:
It must be testable
It must be falsifiable
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A Closer Look at Scientific Inquiry


Observations

Questions
Hypothesis # 1: Dead batteries Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Hypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem

Test prediction

Test prediction

Figure 1.25

Test falsifies hypothesis

Test does not falsify hypothesis

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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry Experiments must be designed to test the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups in a way that cancels the effects of unwanted variables
Science cannot address supernatural phenomena because hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable and experimental results must be repeatable A scientific theory is broad in scope; generates new hypotheses; and is supported by a large body of evidence
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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry Science is the search for knowledge Technology applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose

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A closer look at Scientific Inquiry Science is a social activity characterized by cooperation and competition

Figure 1.31
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Lab: SciInvest Sample Experiment

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Lab: SciInvest Sample Experiment

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Lab: Scientific Investigations - Procedure

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Lab: SciInvest Variables, contd

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Lab: SciInvest Procedure contd

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APLab: Cardiovascular Fitness


LabBench APLab #10