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Basic Control Loop

Basic Loop
Transmitter
SV PV MV

4-20 mA

Controller

I/P I/P Convertor

4-20 mA

Pneumatic Signal
(0.2 to 1 Kg/cm2 or 3 to 15 psi)

Final Control Element

Process Control Systems


Process control systems are classified into
Analog Control Systems Digital Control Systems

Analog Control System

Analog Control System


Operational Amplifier
Transmitter Signal Conversion 1 to 5V DC

4-20 mA DC

I/P
Set Point

Final Control Element

Digital Control System

Digital Control System


Memory Unit
1 to 5V DC A/D 4-20 mA DC D/A Digital Input Unit Output Unit Control Unit

Set Point

I/P

Arithmetic Unit

Processor

THE SIXTIES
* First control computers * First DDC

THE SEVENTIES
* First mini computers * First distributed DDC using microprocessors

THE EIGHTIES
* First one-loop DDC controllers * Use of factory management computers V LSI Appearance of OA, LA and FA (Improved manmachine interface

THE NINETIES

BEYOND 2000
* multimedia

* Integrated systems

* windows NT gaining prominence * Internet * Pentium Processor * Revolution in info tech * Object linking * ODBC * RDBMS

Ge.Tr Sl. Tr Rapid growth of process Industries

DTL SSI TTL.SSI

LSI uP Demand for Energy crisis conservation (Transition to of resources steady growth)

32bit UP * Multi produce batch applications * Integrated FA system * CIM

THE SIXTIES

THE SEVENTIES

THE EIGHTIES

THE NINETIES

BEYOND 2000

Factory Management Computer System YEWCOM HP9000 Computer Control System CCS YODIC 100

YODIC 1000 Manufacturing Line Control System YEWMAC

Centralized DDC System YODIC 500 YODIC 600 Distributed Control System CENTUM V CENTUM II YEWPACK CENTUM-XL

YEWPACK uXL Mark II YS 100

YEWSERIES 80

CS CS1000 CS3000

Analog Control System EBS ECS

I SERIES

Digital Control System


Digital Control Systems are further classified into
Centralized Control Systems Distributed Control Systems

Centralized Control System

Centralized Control System


Centralized Control , Centralized Monitoring
PV1 MV1

Input Signals from Field

PV2
PV3

Centralized Processing Unit

MV2
MV3

PVn

CPU

MVn

Output Signals to Field

SV1 SV2 SV3

SVn

Set Points

Centralized Control System


Drawbacks Of CCS: If the CPU fails the entire plant gets affected. Redundancy concept is not available.
Redundancy is having two controllers. One would be active and the other would be standby. If the active controller fails, the standby controller takes over.

Distributed Control System

Distributed Control System


Distributed Control
PV1
MV1

Centralized Monitoring

Input Signals from Field

PV8
SV1 PV9

FCS
MV8 SV8 MV9

Output Signals to Field

OPS

PV16 SV9

FCS
MV16 SV16

OPS

PV17

MV17

PVn SV17

FCS
MVn SVn

Communication Bus

Set Points

Basic Components of DCS


FCS (Field Control Station): Used to control the process. All the instruments and interlocks created by software reside in the memory of the FCS. All the field instruments like transmitters and control valves are wired to the FCS. OPS (Operator Station): Used to monitor the process and to operate various instruments. Communication Bus: Used to communicate between the FCS and the OPS

Advantages of DCS
Control function is distributed among multiple CPUs (Field Control Stations). Hence failure of one FCS does not affect the entire plant. Redundancy is available at various levels. Instruments and interlocks are created by software. Generation and modifications of the interlocks are very flexible and simple. Information regarding the process is presented to the user in various formats. Field wiring is considerably less. Maintenance and trouble shooting becomes very easy. Cost effective in the long run.

CENTUM Series (DCS) Evolution

CENTUM-XL

CENTUM VP 2008
CENTUM CS3000 1998

2nd CENTUM 1988

1993 CENTUM CS

World First DCS 1975 1st CENTUM

1981

1984 CENTUM V

CENTUM has developed as a true open system.

CS3000-System Configuration

Ethernet HIS HIS / ENG

Remote Domain System

CGW V net BCV CS, CS 1000 CENTUM-XL, -V MXL FFCS KFCS

PFCS
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LFCS

CENTUM CS 3000 - Major Components

FCS (Field Control Station)


HIS (Human Interface Station)

Reliable controller. Cost-effective and capable I/O subsystem. The operator station based on Windows XP or Windows2000. (Both are selectable.) HIS provides easy & flexible operation. Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder for all the stations like HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc. ENG is a PC loaded with Engineering software. The HIS can be loaded with engineering software so that it can be used as HIS as well as ENG.

ENG (Engineering Station)

CGW: Communication Gateway Unit used to communicate with supervisory computers. BCV: Bus Converter is used to link two domains.

CENTUM CS 3000 - Networks


V-Net (Communication Bus)

Real-time control bus. V-NET is a used for communication between BCV & CGW.

HIS,

FCS,

Maximum 64 Stations can be connected on the V-net.


ETHERNET (Communication Bus)

Ethernet is a standard network CS3000 to connect HIS, ENG and supervisory computers . Transmission speed: 10 MBPS

in

CS3000 FIO System Configuration-Overview


Ethernet

V net

GSGW
Subsystem Gateway

Ethernet
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PROFIBUS-DPV1

OPC Server

FFCS
DeviceNet
Discrete I/O Photoelectric device Drive

FCJ/FCN PLC

Safety System Other System

FIO
FIO means Field network I/O. FIO is Process I/O modules. A kind of compact, cost-effective, reliable I/O devices, targeted as the industrial standard I/O of nextgeneration. FIO includes the latest network technologies and field experience.

FFCS Hardware View


Eight FIO slots

Detachable bottom unit

EC401 ESB bus coupler Power supply unit (Note) CP401 CPU module
AIP504 Vnet coupler (10BASE2 Vnet cable is used.) Note: Two I/O slots are to be used for NIU extension.

Hardware Configuration- Local Node


FFCS
CP401 CP401 PW48X

V net

FFCS
EC401 EC401 CP401 CP401 PW48X

PW48X

FIO: Max. 8

Up to 6 Modules
SB401 SB401 PW48X PW48X PW48X PW48X

PW48X

ESB bus

Minimum Configuration
Up to 8 Modules

SB401 SB401

PW48X

Local node Max. 3

SB401 SB401

Maximum Configuration

PW48X

Hardware ConfigurationRemote Node


V net

EB401 EB401 EB401 EB401 EB401 EB401 CP401 CP401 PW48X

FFCS

Optical Repeater can be used

PW48X

Remote node EB501 EB501 PW48X PW48X

Remote node EB501 EB501 PW48X PW48X

Remote node

ER bus
EB501 EB501 PW48X PW48X

Expanded Remote node up to 3

FIO System Specification for FFCS

The bus among FFCS and local nodes. (ESB bus) Dedicated Internal Bus Speed : 128 Mbps Distance in Total : Max. 10m Remote I/O bus (ER bus) Based on Ethernet Speed : 10 Mbps Distance in total : 10base2 -> max. 185m / 10base5 -> max. 500m max. 2 km with repeater (Standard of Ethernet) Up to 3 remote nodes can be installed on a FFCS.

Pair & Spare CPU Concept

FFCS Specification

CPU Memory Size Power supply No. of I/O slot No. of I/O node ESB bus I/F

R5432 (RISC) 32MB 100/220V AC, 24V DC 8 total 4 including CPU node EC401/SB401

Local node for ESB bus


Remote node for ER bus ER bus I/F AI/AO DI/DO Communication data Global SW Common SW %ANN AP capacity %PR %OP %RQ No. of control drawing sheet No. of function block (total with %ANN) Realtime trend

Up to 4
Up to 3 EB401/EB501 480 1920 4000 words 256 4000 1000 1000 500 200 200 2500 256

Input Output Modules

Analog Modules
Analog Modules
AAI141 AAV141 AAV142 AAI841 AAB841 AAV542 AAP149

<Isolated (between system and field)>


AAI143 AAI543 AAV144 AAV544 AAT141 AAR181 AAI135 AAI835 AAT145 AAR145 AAP135 16Ch 16Ch 16Ch 16Ch 16Ch 12Ch

16Ch Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply) 16Ch Voltage input 1-5V 16Ch Voltage input -10V to +10V 8Ch Current input/8Ch Current output 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply) 8Ch Voltage input/8Ch Current output 1-5V input/4-20mA output 16Ch Voltage output -10V to +10V 16CH Pulse Count 0 to 6kHz (Pulse Input Module Pm1 Compatible) Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply) Current output 4-20mA Voltage Input -10V to +10V Voltage Output -10V to +10V mV,TC input JIS R,J,K,E,T,B,S,N / -100 to +150mV RTD JIS Pt100ohum

<Non-isolated type>

<Channel Isolated>

8Ch Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply) 4Ch Current input/4Ch Current output 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply) 16Ch mV,TC input JIS R,J,K,E,T,B,S,N / -100 to +150mV 16Ch RTD/POT input RTD JIS Pt100ohum / POT 10kohum 8Ch 0-10kHz Pulse input Transmitter power supply 12V/24VDC, (Shunt resistance can be selected)

Analog Modules with HART


FIO HART Module Lineups

AAI135-H:8 input, channel isolated AAI835-H:4 input/4 output, channel isolated AAI141-H:16 input, non-isolated AAI841-H:8 input / 8 output, non-isolated AAI143-H:16 input, Isolated AAI543-H:16 output, Isolated ASI133-H:8 input, IS module ASI533-H:8 output, IS module

HART Module data


Analog Data 4 to 20 mA from Device
HART Variable Data HART device supports Max 4 HART Variable PV Primary Value SV Secondary Value TV Third Value FV(4V) Fourth Value HART Module supports Max 32 HART Variable data

Digital I/O Modules


<Generic type> ADV151 32Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channel ADV157 32Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channel, Single and Weidmueller only ADV161 64Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channel, MIL type only ADV551 32Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channel ADV557 32Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channel, Single and Weidmueller only ADV561 64Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channel, MIL type only ADV851 16ch Input/16ch Output, 24VDC <AC input modules> ADV141 16Ch100VAC input, Common minus side every 8-channel ADV142 16Ch220VAC input, Common minus side every 8-channel <Relay output module> ADR541 16Ch Relay output, Common minus side every 8-channel, 24-100VDC,100-200VAC, 2A/point, Maximum 8A is allowed per common, A type contact, exchange by a module. <CENTUM-ST compatible type> ADV859 ST2 compatible -16Ch input,16Ch output ADV159 ST3 compatible - 32Ch input ADV559 ST4 compatible - 32Ch output ADV869 ST5 compatible - 32Ch input, 32Ch output ADV169 ST6 compatible - 64Ch input ADV569 ST7 compatible - 64Ch output

Communication Modules

Serial Communication Module


ALR111 ALR121 RS232C RS422/RS485
2 ports, 1200bps to 115.2k bps

2 ports, 1200bps to 115.2k bps

Ethernet Communication Module


ALE111 Ethernet Communication
Installable both on Local and Remote Node

Subsystem Packages List


RS Communication (ALR111/ALR121) YS Communication YS Directly Communication FA-M3 Modbus SLC500/PLC5 MELSEC

Ethernet Communication (ALE111) FA-M3 Modbus SLC500/PLC5 Control Logix MELSEC

Foundation Fieldbus Module (ALF111)

FF-H1 interface card Redundancy Installable both on Local and Remote nodes VCR (Virtual Communications Relationship): 105 per port (one segment) Both pressure clamp and terminal board are available. Link Master

Redundant Fieldbus Module (ALF111)


Image of Redundant Card
Com. Card Com. Card

ALF111
External Power Supply 0x14 0x15

IOM

IOM

IOM

IOM

IOM

Field Devices

IOM

PSU

PSU

HIS (Human Interface Station)

The Station for Real time Plant Monitoring/Operation

Plant Operation by thousands of Graphics

Real time display of Plant Abnormalities.

Easy Operation by a mouse, a keyboard etc.

Types of HIS

DESKTOP HIS: A IBM PC/AT compatible machine is generally used. Apart from the general PC, the Yokogawa PC is also supported. Specifications of the PC HIS Desktop are as follows: CPU : Pentium IV Processor Main Memory : 256 MB (Minimum) Hard Disk : 20 GB or more Video Display : 1024 x 768 or more, 256 colours CRT Monitor : Multi Scan 17 monitor or larger Serial Port : RS232C one port or more Parallel Port : One port or more Extension Slot : PCI slot for V/VL net card, ISA slot for Ethernet card Power Supply : 200-240V AC Basic Software : Windows NT with Service Pack ,Windows 2000 or Windows XP
CONSOLE HIS The floor mounted console type HIS comes with 21 monitor which has a touch panel operation. It has an operation keyboard and an engineering keyboard.

Application Capacity of HIS

Maximum number of tags that can be monitored from HIS : One Million. Maximum number of windows that can be created per HIS : 4000.
Maximum number of Trend Recording Points per HIS : 3328.

V net Communication
HIS

V net

Protocol : IEEE 802.4 Access Control : Token Passing Trans. Speed : 10 Mbps Trans. Distance : 500m to 20km Media : Coaxial/Optical Fibre Std. max. length : 185 m Max. length : 20 Km (with optical repeater) 1.6 Km (with coax. repeater)

V net : Extension Details


HIS

HIS

HIS

V net
T T

Optical Fibre
R R R R

Optical Fibre
R R R R

Co-axial Cable
T T

Max. 500m

Max. 15 km

Max. 500m

Max. 15 km

Max. 500m

Overall Max. 20 km

Bus Convertor
ETHERNET

EOPS

HIS

HF BUS

V-NET

Domain connection

BCV
EFCD

FCS

ooo

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Domains are group of stations connected on the V-net. Bus Convertor is used to link two domains. BCV is used to connect CS, CS 1000, CENTUM-XL,CENTUM-V AND MXL to CS3000 system

Operation Windows
Information regarding the process is gathered as well as monitored by the following Standard Operation windows on the HIS. Tuning Window Control Group Window Trend Window Process Alarm Window Operator guide Message Window Graphic Window Overview Window Process Report Window Historical Report Window

System Message Window

System Message Window

These buttons are provided for calling various functional windows on the HIS

Type the TAGNAME to call the instrument faceplate window

System Message Area


SYSTEM MESSAGE AREA ICONS

Various windows can be accessed by selecting the respective icons in the System Message Area

These windows can also be accessed by the keys on the Operator Keyboard

Operation Keyboard

Operation Keyboard
OPERATION KEYBOARD Operation Keyboard

All the operations can be performed with the help of the Operation Keyboard. The same operations can also be performed by touch functions available on the System Message Area Icons.

Operation Windows

From this window, you can open the following windows. 1. Overview Window 2. Control Window 3. Tuning Window 4. Trend Window 5. Graphic Window 6. Alerm Window 7. Operator Guide message Window

Instrument Faceplate Window

Tuning Window

Select this icon to display the Tool box

Select this icon to display the Tuning Window

Tuning Window

TUNING WINDOW displays all the Tuning parameters of the instrument. The Tuning Window is used to set up the alarm setting as well as the loop tuning parameters. Only the items indicated with a = can be changed. Displaying a Tuning Window 1.Double click on a Tags name on a Control Window and a faceplate window will appear. Select the Tuning window icon from the toll box. 2. Select NAME icon in the System Message Area then enter the TAGNAME.

Tuning Window

Control Drawing Display

Control Drawing Display


Select this icon to call the Control Drawing display

Control drawing display

Control Group Window


Select this icon to display the Tool box

Select this icon to display the Control Group Window

Control Group Window8 Instruments

Control group windows are used to display multiple instrument faceplates. Maximum 8 or 16 instrument faceplates can be displayed in one Control Group Window

Normally the instruments are monitored and operated from this window.
Double click on the instrument TAGNAME to display the Tuning Window of the instrument. Select the Upper Window Key to come back to Control Group Window

Control Group Window 16 Instruments

Trend Window
Select this icon to display the Tool box

Select this icon to display the Trend Window

Trend Window

TREND WINDOW records the PV, SV and MV of various instruments. Trend can be displayed in Trend Group Format or in Trend Point Format. Maximum 8 pens can be assigned in one Trend Group Window

Trend Group Window

Trend Point Window

Double click here to call the Trend Point Window

Trend Point Window

Calling Instrument from Trend Window

Double click here to call the Instrument faceplate Window

Instrument Faceplate Window. Instrument can be operated from this window.

Process Alarm Window

Select this icon to call the Process Alarm Window

PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 process alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm.

Process Alarm Window

This icon displays the current PV Values of the instruments that are in alarm

This icon is used to acknowledge the process alarms.

This icon displays the important tags (High Priority Alarms) that are in alarm.

PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 process alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm.

Operator Guide Message Window

Select this icon to call the Operator Guide Message Window

OPERATOR GUIDE MESSAGE WINDOW displays the predefined messages to guide the operator regarding the current process status and /or the actions to be taken. OG messages can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual message.

Graphic Window

Overview Window

Select this icon to display the Tool box

Select this icon to display the Overview Window

Overview Window

Overview Window displays the overview of the current process status. Information regarding the process is distributed among the various display blocks. 32 Display Block s per Overview Window. Each block gives dynamic information regarding the process. Double click on the display block to more details. 3 Types of Display Blocks Single Tag Block Window Display Block Comment Block

Overview Window

Process Report Window

Historical Message Report Window

Sequence Tables

Sequence Tables

Logic Charts

Logic Charts

System Status Window

System Alarm Window

SYSTEM ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 system alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm.

Navigator Window

Virtual test Function


TEST FUNCTION SYSTEM GENERATION FUNCTION OPERATION

&
MONITORING FUNCTION

CONTROL FUNCTION

SFCS
HUMAN INTERFACE STATION

Thank you
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