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THERMAL STRESS

HOW IT IS GENERATED IN TURBINE?

During operational changes of the Turbine say Start-up, Loading & unloading the surface of the Turbine components gets heated or cooled immediately as it comes in contact with the steam. Whereas internals of the turbine components are not able to response that fast. The result is a differential temperature between Surface (Ts) & Mid metal (Tm)which generates Thermal stress. Because Thermal Stress

Ts Tm (T)

The more the value of T the more will be the thermal stress.

TSE

WHAT IS THE NEED ?

The Turbine is equipped with TSE to assist in optimized Startup,operation & Shutdown without impairing the expected operating life. Time is a prime importance while start-up,loading operation of Turbine. At the same time it also very necessary to keep the thermal stress in turbine components under control.

TSE is specifically designed for achieving both the above mentioned objectives at the same time.

The components of TSE


TSE basically consists of three sections.

1. INPUT SECTION 2. COMPUTING DEVICES 3. OUTOUT DEVICES

INPUT SECTION
Input section needs
Temperature inputs from Turbine components. ACTUAL LOAD ACTUAL SPEED

Temperature Inputs
TSE takes temperature inputs from five Turbine components. They are 1. Emergency Stop Valve. 2. HP Control Valve. 3. HP Turbine casing. 4. HP Turbine Shaft. 5. IP Turbine Shaft.

WALL TEMPERATURE SENSORS


The Temperature inputs are supplied by Ni Cr-Ni thermocouples known as WT SENSORS Temperature inputs for stationery parts are obtained from WT Sensors having Two legs. One leg is inserted at 95% of the metal depth nearing surface measure surface temperature (TS) & another leg is inserted at 55% of material thickness (Tm). For TS & Tm for rotating parts TS is taken from a place where the Radial clearance between Casing & Rotor is minimum. The Tm is calculated with fair degree of accuracy by means of following equation.

Tm = Ts [ 1- (0.692 e -t/T1 + 0.131 e -t/T2 + 0.177 e -t/Tk ) ]


Where, Ts : Surface Temperature Tm : Mid metal Temperature t : Time in minutes T1 : 2408.31 T2 : 457.08 Tk : 56.62

The millivolt (D.C.) output from thermocouple is fed to Analog Signal Conditioning Cabinet (CJJ05) where it is converted into 4-20 mA signals are fed into TSE CABINET (CJJ01).

Actual speed measured from Halls Probe provided in turbine front pedestal as 4-20 mA signal fed into TSE CABINET.

Actual Load of Turbo-Generator is measured & a current signal of 4-20 mA signal fed into TSE CABINET for actual Load indication & computation of Load Margins.

Computation
The five turbine components has got five computing channels in computing devices. Each Computing channel calculates the difference Ta from Ts & Tm.

Ta = Ts-Tm
The calculated temperature difference Ta is compared with the permissible temperature difference Tp. Tp is derived from limit curve of that particular component already fed into TSE hardware. These Limit Curves are nothing but maximum permissible temperature difference allowed w.r.t. Tm while heating & cooling.

The difference between Tp & Ta is called margin.

Comparing Ta against Tp on the +ve side, we get UPPER MARGIN & the same on the ve side we get LOWER MARGIN.

Suppose at any particular condition Ts of HP Casing = 300 deg c Tm of HP Casing = 240 deg c Ta= Ts-Tm= 300-240=60 deg c From upper limit curve when Tm = 240 deg c Then Max upper permissible temp diff ( Tpu) = 100 deg c Max lower permissible temp diff ( Tpl) = -60 deg c So the Upper margin = ( Tpu- Ta) =100-60=+40 deg c & the Lower margin = ( Tpl- Ta) =-60-60 =-120 deg c

The inference of the above computation of upper & lower temperature is that Surface temp Ts can be increased by 40 deg c (to the level of 340 deg c) is known as Upper margin. Similarly Ts can be decreased by 120 deg c is known as Lower margin. Thus the upper & lower margin for all the five turbine components calculated in similar fashion. The minimum upper margin & minimum lower margin among them is selected separately for display purpose & as well fed to EHC for controlling speed rate & load rate.

TSE OUTPUT SIGNAL GOES TO TSE DISPLAY TSE MARGIN RECORDER ATRS CMC EHC
SPEED CONTROLLER LOAD CONTROLLER

TSE DISPLAY
TSE DISPLY TSE DISPLAY has two separate sections 1. One is up to synchronisation stage. 2. Another for Load condition. The sections are illuminated according to operating mode

ADMISSION OR TURBINE MODE HAS THE MARKING ON WHITE SCALE INDICATES THE ACTUAL SPPED OF THE TG SET. THE UPPER BOUNDARY OF TRANSPARENT SECTOR INDICATES THE UPPER MARGIN FOR SPEEDING UP. THE TOP RECTANGLE(ADM. MODE) & LED (TURBINE MODE) GETS ILLUMINATED AND INDICATES THE COMPONENT WHICH IS CAUSE FOR IMPOSING MARGIN.

ADMISSION MODE

ADMISSION MODE IS SELECTED BEFORE OPENING STOP VALVES.

TURBINE MODE
THIS MODE IS SELECTED BEFORE OPENING THE CONTROL VALVES FOR SOAKING OR SPEEDING UP. PRE-SELECTION SWITCH FOR SELECTION OF ADMISSION OR TURBINE MODE ARE PROVIDED ON THE CONSOLE. THE ABOVE TWO MODES ARE DISPLAYED ON THE L.H.S. OF TSE DISPLAY.

LOAD MODE
THE TSE INDICATOR SWITCHES OVER TO RIGHT HAND SECTION ONCE THE LOAD >2% MCR. DURINNG LOAD OPERATION THE DISPLAY INDICATES ACTUAL LOAD ( MARKING) UPPER & LOWER LOAD MARGINS WHICH SIGNIFIES MAXIMUM LOADING & UNLOADING LIMIT AT THAT MOMENT.

TSE OUTPUT SIGNAL GOES TO TSE DISPLAY TSE MARGIN RECORDER ATRS CMC EHC
SPEED CONTROLLER LOAD CONTROLLER

Speed controller output ( EHC OUTPUT) gets blocked if


Turbine speed >2850 r.p.m.

and TSE GETS FAULTED


LOWER MARGIN IS NOT USED IN SPEED CONTROLLER AS TURBINE COASTING DOWN IS NATURAL.

NEGATIVE LOAD MARGIN CAN UNLOAD THE MACHINE WHEREAS REDUCRD LOWER MARGIN CAN PREVENT TURBINE FROM UNLOADING.

TSE INFLUENCE TO ATRS


SGC Turbine can not be made ON if TSE is N/A. TSE upper margin is one of criteria needed for the next step (No. 15) and subsequently speed raise to 3000 r.p.m.

Speed raise is held up till upper margin is not more than 30 deg c.
SGC Turbine start up programme gets switched off while Rolling (600-2850 r.p.m.)if TSE Upper Margin <0 deg c. TSE FAULT does not make SGC TURBINE start up programme off while in operation.

USE OF MARGIN IN CMC


Minimum of TSE lower margin & Unit Load Rate (in CMC Console) is considered as allowable load rate at which the unit would be unloaded.

Minimum of TSE upper margin & Unit Load Rate is considered as allowable load rate at which the unit would be loaded.

TSE TEST
For checking the proper functioning of the five computing channels from INPUT SECTION up to DISPLAY, known INPUT signals can be applied (by pressing test buttons) to get a predetermined results. Testing of five computing channels are possible only if

1. NO EHC FAULT 2. NO TEST PROGRAMMING BLOCK FROM ATRS


If there is any deviation TSE should not be used till fault is cleared

Procedure adopted in case of lost upper Margin

The turbine should not be loaded further. Reduction of steam temperature by cutting down firing. Soaking the turbine for sufficient time period.

Procedure adopted in case of lost lower Margin

Avoidance of further unloading.

Increase firing to increase steam temperature.

Soaking the machine.