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Antares Bugi M. Ihsan Nugraha Nurul Biandra P.

S Ika Nurmila

116080048 116080053 116081023 116080092

QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative Research provide insights and understanding of the problem setting

Quantitative Research seeks to quantify the data and, typically, applies some form of statistical analysis.

Note: quantitative research must be preceded by appropriate qualitative research.

QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


Qualitative Objective To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Quantitative To quantify the data and generalize the result from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured

Sample

Data Collection

Data Analysis Outcome

Nonstatistical Develop an initial understanding

Statistical Recommend a final cource of action

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCEDURE


Focus Group Direct Depth Interviews Association Techniques Completion Techniques

Qualitative Research Procedure


Projective Techniques

Indirect

Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques

DIRECT : FOCUS GROUP


A focus group is an interview conducted by a trained moderator in a nonstructured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. The moderator leads the discussion.

Video url : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOtHYRUM_Dc&hd= 1

CHARACTERISTICS OF FOCUS GROUP


Group size Group composition 8 to 12 Homogeneous; respondents prescreened Relaxed, informal atmosphere 1 to 3 hours Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Observational, interpersonal, and communication skill of the moderator

Physical setting Time duration Recording Moderator

VARIATIONS OF FOCUS GROUP


Two-way focus group Dual-moderator group Dueling-moderator group

Respondent-moderator group
Client-participant group Mini group Telesession groups

ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE

Advantage Synergism Snowballing Stimulation Security Speed

Disadvantage Misuse Misjudge Moderation Messy Misrepresentation

DIRECT : DEPTH INTERVIEW


Depth interviews are another method of obtaining qualitative data. A depth interviews is an unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic.

DEPTH INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES


Laddering In laddering, the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics.

Hidden issue questioning


In hidden issue questioning, the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal sore spot; not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns. Symbolic analysis

Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites.

ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE


Advantage Peer pressure/group influence Uncovering hidden motives Discussion of sensitive topics Interviewing respondent who are competitor Scheduling of respondents

Disadvantage Theres no group synergy and dynamics Theres no client involvement Theres no generation of innovative ideas

INDIRECT : PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES


A projective technique is an unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern.

Association Techniques

Completion Techniques

Construction Techniques

Expressive Techniques

ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUES
an individual is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind.

Responses are analyzed by calculating :


1. The frequency with which any word is given as a response 2. The amount of time that elapses before a response is given 3. The number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time.

COMPLETION TECHNIQUES
the respondent is asked to complete an incomplete stimulus situation. Common completion techniques in marketing research are sentence completion and story completion. Sentence completion is similar to word association. Respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Story completion is respondents are given part of story enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
The two main construction techniques are: Picture response The roots of picture response techniques can be traced to the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which consists of a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. Cartoons In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques.

EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES
Respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. The two main expressive techniques are:

Role playing
In role playing, respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. The researcher assumes that the respondents will project their own feelings into the role. Third-person techniques

In third-person technique, the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes.

ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE DATA


There are three general steps of analyzing qualitative data: Data reduction In this step, the researcher chooses which aspects of the data are emphasized, minimized, or set aside for the project at hand. Data display In this step, the researcher develops a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram, chart, or matrix. Conclusion drawing and verification

In this step, the researcher consider the meaning of analyzed data and assesses its implication for the researcher question at hand.

SOFTWARE PACKAGES
Software package are available that can be used to assist in the analysis of qualitative data. Its important to be aware of the specific things that various programs can do for researcher. These include:

Coding
Memoing/Annotation Data Linking Search and Retrieval Coceptual/Theory Development Data Display Graphics Editing

ETHICS IN MARKETING RESEARCH


Ethical issues related to the respondents and the general public are of primary concern These issues include :

Disguising the purpose of the research and the use of deveptive procedures
Videotaping and recording the proceedings The comfort level of the respondents Misusing the findings of qualitative research

CASE STUDY : PROPATRIA INSTITUTE


1. ProPatria Institute tengah melakukan kajian mengenai bina perdamaian atau peacebuilding dalam konteks Indonesia.

2. Tujuan FGD ini adalah untuk mensosialisasikan draft Manual Peacebuilding untuk Masyarat Sipiil yang tengah dikerjakan ProPatria sekaligus mendapatkan masukan dari kalangan masyarakat sipil, berupa koreksi atas tampilan, sistemati dan substansi dari drat Manual tersebut. Fasilitator
T. Hari Prihatono (Direktur Eksekutif ProPatria Institute) Kusnanto Anggoro (Project Leader, ProPatria Institute) Wandy Nicodemus Tuturoong - "Binyo" (Program Officer, ProPatria Institute)