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Chapter

4
Computer Hardware

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Learning Objectives 1. Identify the major types and uses of microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe computer systems.

2. Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage.

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Learning Objectives 3. Identify and give examples of the components and functions of a computer system.

4. Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections.
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What is a Computer? Definition: All computers are systems of input, processing, output, storage, and control components.

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Types of Computer Systems

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Microcomputer Systems Personal Computer (PC) microcomputer for use by an individual Professional Workstation a powerful, networked PC for business professionals Laptop small, portable PC

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Microcomputer Systems Network Server more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small local area networks and Internet and intranet websites Computer Terminals depend on servers for software, storage and processing power Ex. Network terminals & Transaction Terminals
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Microcomputer Systems Network Computers low-cost, sealed microcomputers with no or minimal disk storage that are linked to the network They use only Internet & Corporate Intranet. Information Appliances hand-held microcomputer devices Blackberry PDA & Apple iPhone.
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PC Features

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Midrange Systems Definition: Primarily high-end network servers and other types of servers that can handle the large-scale processing of many business applications.

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Mainframe Systems Definition: Large, fast, and powerful computer systems Advanantages : MIPS, High Storage capacity

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Supercomputer Systems Definition: Extremely powerful computer systems specifically designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications requiring extremely high speeds for massive numeric computations Facility: Mass Parallel computing,

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Hardware Organized by System Functions Input Devices convert data into electronic form for direct entry or through a telecommunications network into a computer system Processing Components primarily the Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) - perform arithmetic and logic functions required to execute software instructions
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Hardware Organized by System Functions


Output Devices convert electronic information produced by the computer system into humanintelligible form for presentation to end users Storage Devices store data and software instructions needed for processing Control Components primarily the CPUs Control Unit which interprets software instructions and transmits directions that control the activities of the other components of the computer system
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Computer Processing Speeds Millisecond thousandth of a second Microsecond millionth of a second

Nanosecond billionth of a second Picosecond trillionth of a second

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Computer Clock Speeds MIPS million instructions per second Megahertz (MHz) millions of cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz) billions of cycles per second

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Throughput
Definition: Ability of a microprocessor to perform useful computation or data processing assignments during a given period of time

Depends on: Buses size of circuitry paths that interconnect microprocessor components Registers that process instructions Cache high-speed memory Specialized Processors
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Moores Law 10-18 Transistors in 2003 Power is doubling per 18-24 moths Price is reducing half per 18-24 months

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Computer Peripherals Definition: Generic name given to all input, output, and secondary storage devices that are part of a computer system, but are not part of the CPU.

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Peripherals Advice

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Online vs. Offline Online devices are separate from but can be electronically connected to and controlled by a CPU

Offline devices are separate from and not under the control of the CPU

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Input Technologies Keyboard Pointing Devices Pen-Based Computing Speech Recognition Systems Optical Scanning

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Graphical User Interface (GUI) Definition: Icons, menus, windows, buttons, bars, etc used for user selection

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Pointing Devices
Electronic Mouse Moving mouse on pad moves cursor on screen. Pressing buttons on mouse activates activities represented by selected icons.

Trackball Stationary device with a roller ball on top used to move cursor on screen. Pointing Stick Small button-like device which moves cursor in direction of pressure placed on stick.
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Pointing Devices Touchpad Small rectangular touchsensitive surface which moves the cursor in the direction of finger moves on the pad. Touch Screen Video display screen that emits a grid of infrared beams, sound waves, or a slight electric current that is broken when the screen is touched.
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Pen-based Computing Definition: Pressure-sensitive layer under slate-like liquid crystal display screen and software that digitizes handwriting, hand printing, and hand drawing

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Speech Recognition Systems Discrete user must pause between each spoken word Continuous software can recognize conversationally-paced speech

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Optical Scanning Definition: Devices that read text or graphics and convert them into digital input for your computer

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Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Definition: The machine identification of printed characters through the use of lightsensitive devices

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Other Input Technologies Magnetic Stripe devices that read data stored in the magnetic stripe on the back of cards

Smart Cards devices that read a microprocessor chip embedded in a card

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Other Input Technologies Digital cameras devices that allow you to capture, store, and download still photos and full motion pictures

Magnetic Ink Recognition (MICR) devices that can read characters printed on source documents with an iron oxidebased ink

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Output Technologies Video Output Printed Output

Voice Response

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Video Output Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) similar to vacuum tubes in television Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) electronic visual displays that form characters by applying an electrical charge to selected silicon crystals

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Printed Output Inkjet Printers spray ink onto the page Laser Printers use an electrostatic process similar to a photocopying machine

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Storage Trade-Offs

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Binary Representation Definition: Data are processed and stored in a computer system through the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in the computers circuitry or in the media it uses

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Bit vs. Byte Bit binary digit, which can have a value of either zero or one Byte basic grouping of bits that the computer operates as a single unit, typically eight bits

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Storage Capacities Kilobyte (KB) one thousand bytes Megabytes (MB) one million bytes Gigabytes (GB) one billion bytes Terabytes (TB) one trillion bytes Petabytes (PB) one quadrillion bytes

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ASCII Codes

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Binary Number System Definition: Number system used by computers to perform computations since it has only two digits

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Binary Number System

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Direct vs. Sequential Access Direct (or Random) Access Each storage position has a unique address. Each storage position can be individually accessed without having to search through other storage positions. Sequential Access Data are recorded one after another in a predetermined sequence. Locating an individual item of data requires searching the recorded data until the desired item is located.
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Direct vs. Sequential Access

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Semiconductor Memory Characteristics: Small Fast Shock Resistant Temperature Resistant Volatile contents of memory is lost when power is interrupted Used for Primary Storage
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RAM vs. ROM Random Access Memory (RAM) each memory position can be both sensed and changed

Read Only Memory (ROM) can be read but not erased or overwritten

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Firmware Definition: Frequently used programs which are permanently burned into ROM during manufacture

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Magnetic Disks Characteristics: Fast Large Reasonably Priced Used for Secondary Storage

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Types of Magnetic Disks Floppy Disks single disk inside a protective jacket Hard Disk Drives several disks, access arms and read/write heads in a sealed module Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID) - disk arrays of interconnected microcomputer hard disk drives
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Formatting Disks

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Hard Disk Drives

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Magnetic Tape Definition: Read/write heads of magnetic tape drives record data in the form of magnetized spots on the iron oxide coating of the plastic tape

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Optical Disks

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Optical Disks

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Business Applications of Optical Disks Long-term archival storage of historical files of document images Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials in a convenient compact form Computer video games, educational videos, multimedia encyclopedias and advertising presentations
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Summary
Major types of computers include microcomputers, midrange computers, mainframe computers and supercomputers. A computer is a system of information processing components that perform input, processing, output, storage, and control functions.
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Chapter

3
End of Chapter

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