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DISTILLATION OF CRUDE

PRESENTED BY:

NITISH SALVI
5/28/12

Contents
ABOUT CRUDE. DISTILLATION BASICS. VARIOUS FRACTIONS OF DISTILLATION

COLOUMN.
DETAIL ABOUT FRACTIONS. SEPERATION.
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The crude or petroleum is a viscous ,fluorescent liquid having dark green, yellow or brown colour. It has got sharp odour due to sulphur compounds and is present under earth surface. Although many theories exist for its origin, it is generally believed that the crude

is formed by the decomposition of sea-organism like fish & vegetation by bacteria under great pressure. Crude oil is a mixture of a large number of hydrocarbon of different boiling

points. Petroleum is recovered mostly through to oil drilling. this stage comes after the

studies of structural geology.

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Crude oil

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In crude distillation process, crude oil is first heated

in order to vaporize it and then passed into a fractionating column in which unvapourised liquid flows down and out of the bottom as residue while vapour rise up the column.

In doing so they are contacted with a down flowing

stream of reflux 'on a number of trays filled with special contacting devices. the tower gets
5/28/12 progressively cooler towards the top & so from the

various fractions obtained by crude distillation can be explained as follows:

1.GAS FRACTIONS: NATURAL GAS,LPG,REFINERY GAS. 2.LIGHT ENDS: GASOLINE,NAPTHA,KEROSENE. 3.INTERMEDIATE ENDS: FUEL OIL,DIESEL OIL,GAS OIL,WHITE OIL. 4.HEAVY ENDS:LUBRICATING 5/28/12

GAS FRACTIONS
NATURAL GAS:

Natural gas mostly contains methane(90% TO 95%)with small quantities of other light hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane etc.this is the most suitable raw material for making fuel for steam generation &
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Liquid petroleum gas : This gas contains

propane & butane & is widely used in cylinders as domestics fuel or laboratory gas burners the gas can be easily liquefied & stored in liquid form. It is very popular as a cooking gas.
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REFINERY GAS: This is the off-gas from

refinery operation. it contains a part from methane & ethane,H2S,H2,SO2 etc.The H2S content in Indian crude is not much as Indian crude contains very little sulphur (<.02%). The gas is mostly used in furnace but can be used as a5/28/12material for ammonia manufacture. raw

Light fractions

GASOLINE:

Commonly known as petrol. it is produced to a maximum quantity. it is used as a fuel for automobiles & other light vehicles. NAPTHA: the term naphtha is refered to the fractions having properties between gasoline & kerosene. It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbon molecules generally having between 5 and 12 carbon atoms. It typically constitutes 1530% of crude oil, by weight. Light naphtha is the fraction boiling between 30C and 90C and consists of molecules with 56 carbon atoms. Heavy naphtha boils between 90C and 200C and consists of 5/28/12 molecules with 612 carbons.

kerosene: it is the most important constituent of

India. It is used as a household fuel for cooking as well as for illumination. It is also used as a fuel for jet(its freezing point must be very low than-25c) Kerosene is a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons, with a density of 0.780.81 g/cm3, is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150C
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Intermediate fractions

Diesel oil: these oil which are used in heavy

vehicles such as trucks,buses,locomotives,tractors etc. have become extremely important. they must be clean must have good ignition quality for easy starting of low engine,pressure,good fluidity so that it does not give much resistance ,to flow but at the 5/28/12

Fuel oil or furnace oil: As the name suggest these are primarily used as fuel in furnace and also in power station boilers. Nowadays due to shortage of naphtha and natural gas they are also used as raw Gas oil:for making ammonia and fertilizers. material These are used as absorbents for hydrocarbon gases. This is also used for making with tar and asphalt for reducing their viscosity. Another use is for increasing the calorific value of low calorific value gases such as producer gas White oil: and water gas . Most of it is nowadays used to This is primarily used for making hair oil or crack light fractions. cosmetics.

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Heavy fractions
Lubricating oil:
These include various oils used for lubrication of machinery such as motor,engine,machine,gear oil etc. the important properties of the lubricating oil are viscosity, flash point.

Paraffin wax:

Paraffin wax is used for making wax paper candles, insulating materials, sealing compounds and ointment. Mineral jelly: This is used for making of cosmetics, sealing compound for preventing leak 5/28/12 especially in acid lines. another use is to apply it

Residue

Asphalt:

the main use of asphalt is for water proofing of roofs. it is used in road making and protective coating and insulating material. Petroleum coke:

coke is used for making carbon electrodes other use of petroleum coke is in manufacture of calcium carbide and black paints.

Grease:

these are semisolid mixture of solids they are used for lubrication as well as sealing of moving parts. grease are used where lubrication cannot be done.
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SEPERATION:
Distillation is a mass transfer separation where

in a mixture containing two or more components can be separated into individual components or group of components using counter-current multistage liquid-gas contacting equipment.

Ease of separation depends on

- feed concentration - relative volatility of components

Each stage in a distillation column provides

contact for gas and liquid.

Section of column above feed point is called

enriching section or rectifying section.

Section below the feed point is called stripping

or exhaustive section.
Liquid to column is provided by reflux while

vapor to the column is provided by reboiler.

Feed stream provides both liquid and vapor. Vapours going up and liquid flowing down are

in equilibrium.
Vapours leaving to the column top are rich in

the

more

volatile

components

(lighter

components).
The vapours are condensed and part of it is

In this way, at each stage, vapor leaving the

stage becomes enriched in more volatile component and liquid leaving the stage becomes concentrated in less volatile component.

Relative volatility depends on vapor pressure.

For an ideal binary system, relative volatility is

In

any

tray,

liquid

rich

in

more

volatile

component comes in contact with vapor coming from tray below containing smaller quantity of less volatile components.

During the vapor-liquid contact, more volatile

component from liquid vaporizes by condensing less volatile components from the vapor.

The

relative

volatility

can

be

altered

by

changing the operating pressure.


Separation

becomes easier

and

easier

as

system pressure is lowered.


Lower operating pressure requires big diameter

column.
Vacuum

distillation

is

preferred

when

separation is difficult or temperatures are to be

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Factors Affecting Distillation


Number of trays in a column Column capacity Reflux rates to column Feed Composition
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ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLOODING COONING ENTRAINMENT TRAPPED WATER PULSATION LEVELS HIGH LIQUID DUMPING DRY TRAYS

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Flooding
Group of trays is filled with liquid. Flooded

tray:

tray

working

above

its

capacity.
Flooded section decreases efficiency of

tower by reducing the number of effective trays.


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Flooding can be recognized by:


Poor quality products Small temperature gradient Pressure drop larger than normal Pressure fluctuations
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Pulsation

Intermittent flow of vapor through slots of

bubble caps.

Causes low tray efficiency.

Depends on physical properties of the two

phases, cap construction and tray layout.


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Dumping
High liquid loads causes liquid to enter the gap

and fall through risers.

Reduces efficiency of column. Can be avoided by preventing the liquid from

entering the slots at high velocity.

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High Liquid Levels


Trays behave as if they are flooded. Efficiency of fractionation reduces. Height of liquid level is controlled by

adjusting flow rate of bottom product.

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Distillation Column Control


Two main variables to be controlled are :

Reflux ratio

Heat supplied to the column

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THANK YOU
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