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Line Balance

Training Pack

Course agenda
Introduction : What is line balancing?
Where do we use line balancing? Example

Line Balance A simple example


Pre-requisites for line balancing The benefits of the pre-requisites Method Visual management

Summary - flowchart

Introduction : What is line balancing?


Everyone is doing the same amount of work
Doing the same amount of work to customer requirement Variation is smoothed No one overburdened No one waiting Everyone working together in a BALANCED fashion
What is Line balancing?

Introduction : What is line balancing?

Introduction : What is line balancing?

Example : Line Balance Chart


This is a VISUAL production tool that enables the planning and organisation of individual, TIMED items of work to create the foundation for a balanced production line.

It is used as a tool to continuously drive out waste from operations and processes and it is also a valuable tool in implementing changes in customer demand,

Line Balance : Simple Example


Overproduction which causes the other 6 wastes 5 mins 25 mins 15 mins
Over-processing Inventory Waiting Rework

Transportation

Motion

10 mins

Constraint Overburden 25 20 mins 15 10 5 1 2

This operator must WAIT for operator 2

This operator must WAIT for operator 3

Line Balance : Simple Example


Promotes onepiece FLOW Avoids overburden

Minimises the 7 wastes

Reduces Variation

15 mins

15 mins

15 mins

10 mins

Redistribute the work


25 20 15 10 5

Pre-requisites to line balancing


Calculate Takt
Understand the drumbeat of the CUSTOMER

Achieve CONSISTENCY in operations Enabling us to achieve our customers requirements by managing our production effectively

Standardise

Variation in our operations demands more human intervention which, increases the risk of HUMAN ERROR

Takt Time
Takt is a German word It describes the metronome
It is the principal that all activity within a business is
synchronised by a pulse, set by the customer demand
Takt = total time available* total customer demand

Takt time
Customer demand = 10 units / month Total time available = 20 days Drumbeat = 1 part every 2 days Takt = total time available total customer demand

Each process needs to complete one unit every 2 days

Every 2 days

Every 2 days

Every 2 days

Every 2 days

Every 2 days

Process 1

Process 2

Process 3

Process 4

Process 5

Customer

Standardise
Standard work layout
Operation sequence From: To: Cell/ Area Description: Part No.
Scale:

Capture the layout

PPE MUST BE WORN AT ALL TIMES

stores

Indicate how the work flows


Highlight key information

Tool cabinet

Work station 1

Work station 2

Work station 3

Quality check

Safety precaution

Std in process stock

Qty of SIPS

Takt Time

Cycle time

6
Name / position Date Name / position Date Name / position Date

Standardise
NO REVISION DATE PUM ME

WORK INSTRUCTION SHEET


OPERATION NO. WP HRS OPERATION DESCRIPTION PEGS REF:

LOCATION: DEPT: PREPARED BY: AUTHORISATION: TL TL TL

SHEET..OF DATE:

PUM

ME

NO

MAIN STEPS

NO

OPERATING DESCRIPTION

KEY POINTS

TIME

EXPLANATION/ EXAMPLES/ DIAGRAMS

P.P.E.

JIGS/ TOOLS

As per PEGS requirement

REQUIRED CHECKS

TRAINING COMMENTS

The benefits of the pre-requisites


Takt time
What do you think are the benefits?

Standard Operations

The benefits of the pre-requisites


Takt time maximises the productivity due to: Easily managed processes Output of each process matches customer demand

Standard Operations provide:

Capable and repeatable processes Process control at source Improves accuracy of planning Better adherence to plans A platform from which continuous improvement can be made Reduced costs Improved quality Basis for training

Method - capture current state


Calculate TAKT

Customer demand = 19 units a month Time available = 20 days a month TAKT = Available time Customer demand TAKT = 20 days ( x 24 hrs in a day) 19 units

Current State

Ops

3
25hrs

TAKT = 25 hrs

TAKT
Total work content
Line Balance Ratio

Line Balance Efficiency

Method - capture current state


Calculate TAKT

Time the process

Why video? - Used to visually record activity - Accurate method of recording - Irrefutable and unambiguous - Modern approach to establishing method

1. 2. 3. 4.

Capture a representative sample of the process Review the video with the operators present Break down the elements of work and record a time for each one Identify which of the elements are Value-added and which are non-value added

Method capture current state


Calculate Takt time

The operators cycle is broken down into elements These elements are put into three main categories, these being : 1. 2. 3.
COMPANY PART NAME PART NUMBER PROCESS
WORKING SEQUENCE

Time the process

Working (man or machine) Walking Waiting


DATE
ORIGINATOR CHECKED

Break down the work elements

STANDARDISED WORK COMBINATION TABLE


TIME
MANUAL AUTO WAIT WALK

SECTION VOLUME TAKT TIME


SEC

TAKT

OPERATION NAME

OPERATION TIME

Fit bracket A Walk to bench Machine Inspect

10 0 2 10

3 0 10 4

4 0 5 2

1 15 2

TOTAL
MGR COORDINATOR ISSUER ISSUER

KEY: Manual Auto

Walk Waiting

18 of 43

Method - capture current state


Calculate Takt time
30

Constraint customer demand not being met

Time the process

30

Takt (25 hrs)


15 17

25
20

Break down the work elements

15 10 5

Draw current state Line Balance

3
Current State Ops 3 25 hrs 62 hrs

Calculate total work content (stacked time) :

15 + 30 + 17 = 62 hrs

Takt
Total work content
Line Balance Ratio Line Balance Efficiency

Method - capture current state


Or alternatively ..
1. Identify the business area to be balanced 3. Break down each process by task
i. ii. iii.
Machining Treatments Assembly

Use post it notes Write on the process name Place on a board in sequence

Op 2 Main process steps Sub elements of work

Op1

2.

Form small group with team leaders/ operators

4.
i. ii. iii.

Agree estimated time for each job and number of operators involved
Estimate a time for each sub element (use a rough guide) Add up all the elements Write on the main post it the total time and total operators
3 Is it 1, 5 or 10 hours

2
2 1
5hrs
1

Number of operators Total estimated time

2 1
5hrs

10hrs

2 1
1hr

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

Method - capture current state


Calculate TAKT

Time the process

2 1
5hrs

Lay all the post its out in sequence so that all of the processes are visible Draw on the TAKT line (or use string)

3 2
5hrs
1

2 2
5hrs
1 1

10hrs

2 1
1hr

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

1 2
5 hrs

Break down the work elements

Draw current state Line Balance

TAKT

Method - capture current state


Calculate Takt time

Target Manpower = Total Work Content Takt time


30 30

Time the process


25

Takt (25 hrs)


15 17

Break down the work elements

20 15 10

Draw current state Line Balance

3
Current State

Calculate target manpower

Total work content = 62 hrs Takt time = 25 hrs

Ops Takt
Total work content

3 25 hrs 62 hrs

= 2.48 = 3 operators

Line Balance Ratio Line Balance Efficiency

Method capture current state


Line balance ratio =
Calculate Takt time

Total work content No. of stations x longest operation


Total work content Target manpower x Takt

Line balance Efficiency =


Time the process
30

Break down the work elements

30 25 20 15 15 17

Takt (25 hrs)

Draw current state Line Balance

10 5

1
Calculate target manpower Line Balance Ratio Calculate Line Balance Ratio & Efficiency

Current State
Target manpower

= 62 hrs (3 x 30)

X 100

= 69%

Takt

25 hrs 62 hrs 69% 83%

Stacked time
Line Balance Ratio

What could be achieved without Line Balance Efficiency = 62 hrs X 100 reducing waste and still meeting = 83% (3 x 25) TAKT simply REBALANCING!!

Line Balance Efficiency

Method balance to TAKT


30 30 25 20 15 10 17

Takt (25 hrs)


15

30 25 20 15 10 5

25

25 12

Takt (25 hrs)

Target 83% Efficiency

example

Method balance to TAKT


1.
Balance to TAKT
30 30 25 20 15 17

Identify the elements of work that exceed TAKT

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Takt (25 hrs)

15
10

Re-allocate work & re-balance

1
Update calculations

2.
Can this be improved?
Yes

Refer to Standard Work Combination table


COMPANY DATE ORIGINATOR CHECKED PART NAME SECTION STANDARDISED WORK COMBINATION VOLUME TABLE PART NUMBER PROCESS TAKT TIME SEC TIME WORKING OPERATION TIME OPERATION AUTO SEQUENCE MANUAL WALK TAKT 10NAME 4 3 WAIT 1 0 0 0 1 Fit bracket A10 5 15 2 10 4 2 2 Walk to bench 1 Machine Inspect

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

TOTAL MGR COORDINATOR ISSUER ISSUER

KEY: Manual Auto

Walk Waiting

3.

Identify where work can be re-allocated

Method balance to TAKT


Balance to TAKT

Or alternatively 1. Refer to the post it notes on the wall

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Re-allocate work & re-balance

2.

Use magnetic strips to signify the post it notes (elements of time)


3 2 1 2 1 5hrs 1 2 5 hrs

Update calculations

2
1 10hrs 1 2 5 hrs 2 1 1hr 1 2 5 hrs

Can this be improved?

Yes

5hrs 1 2 5 hrs

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

3.

Using the experience of the team leaders/ operators, invite them to rebalance the work to below TAKT

Method Identify value added and non-value added


time
Value Adding:
Any process that changes the nature, shape or characteristics of the product, in line with customer requirements e.g machining, assembly

What is Value added and non-value added time?

Non-Value Adding,but unavoidable


with current technology or methods. Any work carried out that does not increase product value e.g inspection, part movement, tool changing, maintenance

Waste
And dont forget !!
All other meaningless, non-essential activities that do not add value to the product you can eliminate immediately e.g. looking for tools, waiting time

Method Identify value added and non-value added


time

Traditional Focus Work Longer-Harder-Faster Add People or Equipment

Lean Manufacturing Improve the Value Stream to Eliminate Waste

Value Added

Waste

LEAD TIME

Method reduce non-value added time and eliminate


waste
Balance to TAKT

So, identify the category of work on the standard work combination table
COMPANY DATE
ORIGINATOR CHECKED

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

PART NAME PART NUMBER PROCESS


WORKING SEQUENCE

STANDARDISED WORK COMBINATION TABLE


TIME
MANUAL AUTO WAIT WALK

SECTION VOLUME TAKT TIME


SEC

TAKT

OPERATION NAME

OPERATION TIME

1 Re-allocate work & re-balance

Fit bracket A

10

4 0 5 2

1 15 2

Walk to bench 0 0 2 10 Machine 10 4 Inspect

Update calculations

Can this be improved?

Yes

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

TOTAL
MGR COORDINATOR ISSUER ISSUER

KEY: Manual Auto

Walk Waiting

29 of 43

Method balance to TAKT


Or alternatively
Balance to TAKT

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Re-allocate work & re-balance

Update calculations

Can this be improved?

Yes

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

Detail each process step (on format above) Indicate whether the work is : Wait Walk Work

Now you can split the operations on the board into elements of Value added and non value added work

Method reduce non-value added time and eliminate


waste
Balance to TAKT

Highlight the Value added and the non-value added work elements on the line balance board
30 25 20

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Takt (25 hrs) Non value added activity

Re-allocate work & re-balance

15 10 5

Value added activity


1 2 3

Update calculations

Can this be improved?

Yes

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

Use red strips to signify non-value added work

Method - reduce non-value added time and eliminate


waste
Balance to TAKT

Non value added activity Value added activity


30 25 20

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Takt (25 hrs)

Re-allocate work & re-balance

15 10 5

Update calculations

3
Future State Ops Takt
2

Can this be improved?

Yes

Reduce the NVA activity by applying waste removal tools (changeover reduction, 5C, process mapping etc)

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

27 hrs 57 hrs

Attack the red, redistribute the green !!

Stacked time
Line Balance Ratio Line Balance Efficiency

Method re-allocate & re-balance


Balance to TAKT
30

Takt (25 hrs)

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

25 20 15 10

Re-allocate work & re-balance

Update calculations
30 25 Yes

Takt (25 hrs)


Operator freed up for other process or improvement team

Can this be improved?

20 15 10 5

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

Method - update the calculations


Line balance ratio =
Balance to TAKT

Total work content No. of stations x longest operation


Total work content Target manpower x Takt
Future State Ops Takt
Total work content 2

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

Line balance Efficiency =

30 25

Takt (25 hrs)

Re-allocate work & re-balance

20 15 10

25 hrs 44 hrs 92% 88%

Update calculations

1
Can this be improved?
Yes

2
X 100

Line Balance Ratio

Line Balance Ratio

= 44 hrs (2 x 24)

= 92%

Line Balance Efficiency

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

No No

PreviousBalance Efficiency = = 69% Line balance ratio 44 hrs Improvement of 23% (2 x 25)

X 100

= 88%

Method - Continuous Improvement


Balance to TAKT

Act

Plan

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste

A
Check

P
Do

C D

Re-allocate work & re-balance

Update calculations

Continuously use waste elimination tools


Yes

Can this be improved?

No

Value Added

Waste LEAD TIME

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement

Method - standardise
Standard work layout
Operation sequence From: To: Cell/ Area Description: Part No.
Scale:

Capture the NEW layout

PPE MUST BE WORN AT ALL TIMES

stores Tool cabinet

Indicate how the work flows


Highlight key information

Tool cabinet

Work station 1

Work station 2

Work station 3

Quality check

Safety precaution

Std in process stock

Qty of SIPS

Takt Time

Cycle time

6
Name / position Date Name / position Date Name / position Date

Method - standardise
NO REVISION DATE Mgr ME

WORK INSTRUCTION SHEET


OPERATION NO. WP HRS OPERATION DESCRIPTION PEGS REF:

LOCATION: DEPT: PREPARED BY: AUTHORISATION: TL TL TL

SHEET..OF DATE:

PUM

ME

NO

MAIN STEPS

NO

OPERATING DESCRIPTION

KEY POINTS

TIME

EXPLANATION/ EXAMPLES/ DIAGRAMS

P.P.E.

JIGS/ TOOLS

REQUIRED CHECKS

TRAINING COMMENTS

Visual Management

The new line balance chart should be displayed on the cell The impact of changes in resource or Takt on operator cycle times can be seen instantly

Opportunities for Kaizen activities can be easily identified

Summary
Capture the current state
Calculate Takt time

Balance to TAKT & eliminate waste


Balance to TAKT

Time the process


2
1

Current State
Operators

5hrs

Reduce Non Value Added and eliminate waste Future State Ops Re-allocate work & re-balance Takt
Total work content Line Balance Ratio 2

Break down the work elements

Takt
Total work content
Line Balance Efficiency Line Balance Ratio

25 hrs 62 hrs 69% 83% Calculate target manpower Draw current state Line Balance

25 hrs 44 hrs 92% 88%

Update calculations

Can this Can this be be improved? improved?

Yes

Line Balance Efficiency

No

Calculate Line Balance Ratio & Efficiency

Complete work instruction (standardise) & implement