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A History of the Church

First Era: Christian Antiquity Second Era: The Church of the Middle Ages Third Era: The Church in the Modern Age
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First Era: Christian Antiquity


The early period of Church had never been that easy and smooth. The blood of the martyrs has been a living evidence. Through it though, the seed of Christianity grew and flourished.

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The Historical Jesus and His Founding of the Church The Early Church and the Apostolic Era Triumphal Progress of the Church from Jerusalem to Rome The Roman Persecution The Constantinian Turning Point

The early Church and the Apostolic Era


Lets see what happened after Pentecost.

Shortly after the descent of Spirit, Peter and the apostles proclaim the Good News as far and wide as possible within the short time remaining. Why is this so? The answer: PAROUSIA IS NEARING (or so they thought). Only after they realized that it is not, that they put structure to the church for future mission. The early Church also initially understood themselves as merely extension of Judaism, hence with the continued observance of Jewish practices and its exclusivity of membership to Jews. This only came to end with the Conversion of St. Paul (Acts 9:119) and the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-12). Lets get to read these accounts. 3

The early Church and the Apostolic Era


What characterized the early Christian community?

The early Church is admired with its so-called communal theology. The spirit is so much alive in this community and this makes up their being a church. As the early Church starts to expand and grow, authority is established upon the Apostles, though not limited to the Twelve (because there are others whose authority rests not in office but in charisms). Yet, among them Peter occupies a unique authority as their head (see Mt. 16:18). Authority however means service. In the latter part of the 1st cent. AD though, three new types of leaders developed (as all the apostles have been dying): episkopos, presbyters and deacons. Gradually, these developed into what we know now as bishop (episkopos), 4 priest (presbyters) and deacon.

Progress of the Church from Jerusalem to Rome


Three periods provide us deep insights into the overpowering and enthusiastic missionary activity of the early church.

1. The Jewish-Christian period with Jerusalem as its center.


Christianity at its onset traces its roots from Jewish tradition The early Churchs confusion of self-identity vis--vis Judaism Belief in Christ led to two brief periods of persecution

Stoning of Stephen (32-33 AD) Arrest of Peter and death of apostle James the Elder kindled by King Herod Agrippa (37-44 AD)

2. The period of transition from Jewish to Gentile Christianity with Antioch as its center.

Antioch is the 1st Gentile Christian community and a Christian missionary center. It was in Antioch where the followers of Christ were called Christians As the apostle of the Gentiles, St. Paul occupies an eminent place in the early Christian community. See map for reference
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3. The period of St. Pauls missionary journeys to the Gentiles.

Progress of the Church from Jerusalem to Rome

Progress of the Church from Jerusalem to Rome

The Roman Persecution


The missionary enthusiasm that started in Pentecost reached its bloodiest period with the persecutions of Christians in the Roman Empire

Basis of the Persecutions:

Refusal to participate in the official pagan worship

Reason: Christians exclusive monotheism Note: The Roman Empire was generally tolerant of alien religions, as in the case of the Jews. But why such the fuss against the Christians?

Christians denial of recognition of worship to emperor

Reason: Jews involved a small number of adherents and confined to particular national group. Christianity, however, was supra-national and universal. Though still a minority until the middle of 3rd cent., the universal appeal brought fear to the very Roman Empire.

The Mobs hate of Christians

The withdrawn life of Christians created suspicion of criminal activities, 8 foremost of which was the secret meetings and cannibalistic gathering

ASSIGNMENT 101:
Go and look for any Christian martyr whose life story interests you. Find out how he/she had lived and died for faith. Make an account of what he/she had endured Print a picture and a brief account of his/her torture and death in the name of faith.

Bring it next meeting. Good luck

The Constantinian Turning Point


Constantines conversion to Christianity marked a new epoch for the Church

Son of Constantius Chlorus and Helena (Christian) Over some uncertainty in battles outcome, he had a dream. In the sky was a cross and words, conquer in this sign. He won the battle. His conversion led to the Edict of Milan granting freedom of religion to Christians (religious tolerance). Founded Constantinople as new capital of Christian 10 Empire

The Constantinian Turning Point


Constantines conversion was seen as a gift at first only to find out later it was a dubious gift.

While it provided great achievement for the spread of the Church (geographically), it destroyed the valid Christian ideal of the primitive Church (early Christians). A Church absorbed by earthly power.

The next centuries saw the growth of the papal power involved in both the affairs of the church and of the world.

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Second Era: The Church of the Middle Ages

Characteristic Features of the Middle Ages:


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The Church as the ultimate highest moral authority on earth Everything and everyone is united to a Church that is allpowerful. Used Inquisition and Persecution of heretics as tools to preserve and protect Christian unity Internal life of the community was determined by the symbiosis between church and state. The dualism of power (papacy and empire) Public life was organized into public estates; regarded as the God-willed order on earth Existence of Feudalism (Feudal Church) Church had the monopoly on education 12 Only for clerics gradually and minimally shared to lay

Medieval Churchs The Dark Ages (Saeculum Obscurum)


It was Caesar Baronius who coined the designation, saeculum obscurum, dark age. From the end of the Carolingian empire to the beginning of Gregorian reform

This was the period where the papacy quickly succumbed to partisan interests of aristocratic families in Rome and lost its universal importance. Some of the scandalous events included:

The legendary existence of Pope Joan a lady pope. After a pontificate of over two years, she suddenly gave birth while on procession and died on the spot. (not historically true) The desecration of the corpse of Pope Formosus. Pope Stephen VI, his successor, had his corpse put on trial. The body was exhumed, sentenced, mutilated and thrown. 13

Medieval Eras Reformation and Counter Reformation


As the Church entered the 16th century, one thing was perfectly clear, it was badly in need of reform. But no one from the Church hierarchy took the lead.

Martin Luther, a Catholic monk, posted his Ninety-Five Theses at the door of Wittenberg church. He started himself as a reformer and not someone starting a new religion. Other reformists included Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin and King Henry VIII

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Third Era: The Church of the Modern Age


The 20th century was characterized with various developments. The unquestionable highlight of the century was the Second Vatican Council held in Rome (1962-1965)

Background to the Council:


The Fortress Image of the Church for 400 years after Reformation Death of Pius XII and election of John XXIII. His belief in worlds goodness and progress. The Vatican II was convoked. A council way unusual from its preceding councils

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Third Era: The Church of the Modern Age


Vatican IIs Basic Goal: AGGIORNAMENTO Meaning: updating, modernizing, getting in touch with the signs of the times

John XXIII died in June 1963 and was succeeded by Paul VI. The spirit of the council was continued despite his death and the succession of another.

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Third Era: The Church of the Modern Age


In the course of the council, sixteen documents were produced on a variety of topics.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Sacrosanctum concilium, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, 1963. Inter Mirifica, Decree On the Means of Social Communication, 1963. Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution On the Church, 1964. Orientalium Ecclesiarum, Decree On the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite,1964. Unitatis Redintegratio, Decree on Ecumenism, 1964. Christus Dominus, Decree Concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops In the Church,1965. Perfectae Caritatis, Decree On Renewal of Religious Life, 1965. Optatam Totius, Decree On Priestly Training, 1965. Gravissimum Educationis, Declaration On Christian Education, 1965. Nostra Aetate, Declaration On the Relation Of the Church to Non-Christian Religions, 1965. Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution On Divine Revelation, 1965. Apostolicam Actuositatem, Decree On the Apostolate of the Laity, 1965. Dignitatis Humanae, Declaration On Religious Freedom, 1965. Ad Gentes, Decree On the Mission Activity of the Church, 1965. Presbyterorum Ordinis, Decree On the Ministry and Life of Priests, 1965. 17 Gaudium et Spes, Pastoral Constitution On the Church In the Modern World,1965.

TIMELINE:
Gradual loss of Jesus spirit Persecution Martyrs Imperial Church Feudalism, Crusades, Rise of Universities Reformation Industrial Schism Revolution Trent

Vatican II

Kingdom of God Total human liberation compassion forgiveness

Early Christians Fellowship Community Mission

Medieval Church Kingly, powerful, wealthy Rule by 3cs (creed, cult, code)

Modern Period Enlightenment Renaissance


Rerum Novarum, etc. Social concern Integral Liberation Human Dignity

Theres an attempt to go back to Jesus spirit (Kingdom of God)

1 2

St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88) St. Clement I (88-97) St. Evaristus (97-105) St. Alexander I (105-115) St. Sixtus I (115-125) St. Telesphorus (125-136) St. Hyginus (136-140) St. Pius I (140-155) St. Anicetus (155-166) St. Soter (166-175)

31 32 33 34 35

St. Eusebius (309 or 310) St. Miltiades (311-14) St. Sylvester I (314-35) St. Marcus (336) St. Julius I (337-52) Liberius (352-66) St. Damasus I (366-83) St. Siricius (384-99) St. Anastasius I (399-401) St. Innocent I (401-17) St. Zosimus (417-18) St. Boniface I (418-22) St. Celestine I (422-32) St. Sixtus III (432-40) St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61) St. Hilarius (461-68) St. Simplicius (468-83) St. Felix III (II) (483-92) St. Gelasius I (492-96) Anastasius II (496-98) St. Symmachus (498-514) St. Hormisdas (514-23) St. John I (523-26) St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)

61 62 63 64 65 66 67

John III (561-74) Benedict I (575-79) Pelagius II (579-90) St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604) Sabinian (604-606) Boniface III (607) St. Boniface IV (608-15) St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18) Boniface V (619-25) Honorius I (625-38) Severinus (640) John IV (640-42) Theodore I (642-49) St. Martin I (649-55) St. Eugene I (655-57) St. Vitalian (657-72) Adeodatus (II) (672-76) Donus (676-78) St. Agatho (678-81) St. Leo II (682-83) St. Benedict II (684-85) John V (685-86) Conon (686-87) St. Sergius I (687-701) John VI (701-05) John VII (705-07) Sisinnius (708) Constantine (708-15)

many have truly become witnesses to Jesus Kingdom?

LIST OF POPES: Many have ruled yet how

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

36
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

St. Eleutherius (175-189)


St. Victor I (189-199) St. Zephyrinus (199-217) St. Callistus I (217-22) St. Urban I (222-30) St. Pontain (230-35) St. Anterus (235-36) St. Fabian (236-50) St. Cornelius (251-53) St. Lucius I (253-54) St. Stephen I (254-257) St. Sixtus II (257-258)

24
25 26 27 28 29 30

54
55 56 57 58 59 60

St. Dionysius (260-268)


St. Felix I (269-274) St. Eutychian (275-283) St. Caius (283-296) St. Marcellinus (296-304) St. Marcellus I (308-309)

Boniface II (530-32)
John II (533-35) St. Agapetus I (535-36) St. Silverius (536-37) Vigilius (537-55) Pelagius I (556-61)

88 89
90

St. Gregory II (715-31)


St. Gregory III (731-41)

91 92

St. Zachary (741-52) Stephen II (752) Stephen III (752-57) St. Paul I (757-67) Stephen IV (767-72) Adrian I (772-95) St. Leo III (795-816) Stephen V (816-17) St. Paschal I (817-24)

121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135

Anastasius III (911-13) Lando (913-14) John X (914-28) Leo VI (928) Stephen VIII (929-31) John XI (931-35) Leo VII (936-39) Stephen IX (939-42) Marinus II (942-46)

151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165

Benedict IX (1047-48) Damasus II (1048) St. Leo IX (1049-54) Victor II (1055-57) Stephen X (1057-58) Nicholas II (1058-61) Alexander II (1061-73) St. Gregory VII (1073-85) Blessed Victor III (1086-87)

many have truly become witnesses to Jesus Kingdom?

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

LIST OF POPES: Many have ruled yet how

Eugene II (824-27)
Valentine (827) Gregory IV (827-44) Sergius II (844-47) St. Leo IV (847-55) Benedict III (855-58) St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67) Adrian II (867-72) John VIII (872-82) Marinus I (882-84) St. Adrian III (884-85) Stephen VI (885-91) Formosus (891-96) Boniface VI (896) Stephen VII (896-97) Romanus (897) Theodore II (897) John IX (898-900) Benedict IV (900-03)

Agapetus II (946-55)
John XII (955-63) Leo VIII (963-64) Benedict V (964) John XIII (965-72) Benedict VI (973-74) Benedict VII (974-83) John XIV (983-84) John XV (985-96) Gregory V (996-99) Sylvester II (999-1003) John XVII (1003) John XVIII (1003-09) Sergius IV (1009-12) Benedict VIII (1012-24) John XIX (1024-32) Benedict IX (1032-45) Sylvester III (1045) Benedict IX (1045)

Blessed Urban II (1088-99)


Paschal II (1099-1118) Gelasius II (1118-19) Callistus II (1119-24) Honorius II (1124-30) Innocent II (1130-43) Celestine II (1143-44) Lucius II (1144-45) Blessed Eugene III (1145-53) Anastasius IV (1153-54) Adrian IV (1154-59) Alexander III (1159-81) Lucius III (1181-85) Urban III (1185-87) Gregory VIII (1187) Clement III (1187-91) Celestine III (1191-98) Innocent III (1198-1216) Honorius III (1216-27)

106
107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

136
137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

166
167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

Leo V (903)
Sergius III (904-11)

Gregory VI (1045-46)
Clement II (1046-47)

Gregory IX (1227-41)
Celestine IV (1241)

181 182

Innocent IV (1243-54) Alexander IV (1254-61) Urban IV (1261-64) Clement IV (1265-68) Blessed Gregory X (1271-76) Blessed Innocent V (1276) Adrian V (1276) John XXI (1276-77) Nicholas III (1277-80)

211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225

Pius II (1458-64) Paul II (1464-71) Sixtus IV (1471-84) Innocent VIII (1484-92) Alexander VI (1492-1503) Pius III (1503) Julius II (1503-13) Leo X (1513-21) Adrian VI (1522-23)

241 242 243 244 245 246 247

Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)


Alexander VIII (1689-91) Innocent XII (1691-1700) Clement XI (1700-21) Innocent XIII (1721-24) Benedict XIII (1724-30) Clement XII (1730-40) Benedict XIV (1740-58) Clement XIII (1758-69) Clement XIV (1769-74) Pius VI (1775-99) Pius VII (1800-23) Leo XII (1823-29) Pius VIII (1829-30) Gregory XVI (1831-46) Blessed Pius IX (1846-78) Leo XIII (1878-1903) St. Pius X (1903-14) Benedict XV (1914-22) Pius XI (1922-39) Pius XII (1939-58) Blessed John XXIII (1958-63) Paul VI (1963-78)

many have truly become witnesses to Jesus Kingdom?

183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195

LIST OF POPES: Many have ruled yet how

248
249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266

Martin IV (1281-85)
Honorius IV (1285-87) Nicholas IV (1288-92) St. Celestine V (1294) Boniface VIII (1294-1303) Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04) Clement V (1305-14) John XXII (1316-34) Benedict XII (1334-42) Clement VI (1342-52) Innocent VI (1352-62) Blessed Urban V (1362-70) Gregory XI (1370-78) Urban VI (1378-89) Boniface IX (1389-1404) Innocent VII (1404-06) Gregory XII (1406-15) Martin V (1417-31) Eugene IV (1431-47)

Clement VII (1523-34)


Paul III (1534-49) Julius III (1550-55) Marcellus II (1555) Paul IV (1555-59) Pius IV (1559-65) St. Pius V (1566-72) Gregory XIII (1572-85) Sixtus V (1585-90) Urban VII (1590) Gregory XIV (1590-91) Innocent IX (1591) Clement VIII (1592-1605) Leo XI (1605) Paul V (1605-21) Gregory XV (1621-23) Urban VIII (1623-44) Innocent X (1644-55) Alexander VII (1655-67)

196
197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210

226
227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240

John Paul I (1978)


John Paul II (1978-2005) Benedict XVI (2005-)

Nicholas V (1447-55)
Callistus III (1455-58)

Clement IX (1667-69)
Clement X (1670-76)