Anda di halaman 1dari 35

Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry

Gale

10.1 Radioactivity
Radioactivity is a process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
An atom that contains an unstable nucleus is called a radioactive isotope

10.1 Radioactivity
Radioactivity leads to nuclear decay, where atoms of one element can change into atoms of a different element altogether. Nuclear radiation can ionize atoms

10.1 Radioactivity
Scientists can detect a radioactive substance by measuring nuclear radiation Nuclear radiation- charged particles and energy that is emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes.

10.1 Radioactivity
There are three types of nuclear radiation
Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays

10.1 Radioactivity
Alpha decay- nuclear decay that releases alpha particles Alpha particle- positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons

10.1 Radioactivity
Alpha decay is expressed as an equation

10.1 Radioactivity
Beta decay- releases negatively charged radiation called beta particles Beta particle- electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
beta decay

10.1 Radioactivity
In beta decay, a neutron is converted into a proton and electron Neutron proton + electron (emitted)

10.1 Radioactivity
Beta decay is expressed as an equation

10.1 Radioactivity
Gamma decay is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus Gamma radiation has no mass and no charge During gamma decay the atomic number and mass number of an atom remain the same, but the energy of the nucleus decreases

10.1 Radioactivity
Gamma decay

10.1 Radioactivity
Alpha decay

10.1 Radioactivity
Answers

10.1 Radioactivity
Beta decay

10.1 Radioactivity
Answers

10.1 Radioactivity
Strength of alpha/beta particles and gamma rays

Which is the most penetrating (powerful)?

Effects of Nuclear Radiation


You are exposed to nuclear radiation every day. Background Radiation or nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment is what we are exposed to. Ex. Radioisotopes in air water, rocks, plants, and animals, radon gas (read article about radon poisoning), and cosmic rays. The dangerous part is that nuclear radiation can ionize atoms which means that it can break down proteins and other DNA in cells and cause severe damage.

Detecting Nuclear Radiation


Devices used to detect nuclear radiation include Geiger counter and film badges.

10.2 Rates of Nuclear Decay


Every radioisotope decays at a specific rate that can be expressed as a half-life. Half-life- time required for one half of a sample of a radioisotope to decay The half-life can be seconds or millions of years

Half-Life progression

First

Second

Third

Etc.
Fourth Fifth

Half-Life progression of Iodine 131


8.1 days later 8.1 days later

194.4 hr. (8.1 days) First

388.8 hr. 583.2 hr. (16.2 days) (24.3 days)


Second Third

777.6 hr. (32.4 days)


8.1 days later

972.0 hr. (40.5 days)

Etc.

http://einstein.byu.edu/~masong/htmstuff/Radioactive2.html

Half-life graph

10.2 Rates of Nuclear Decay


P. 299 Figure 10 What % of Radon-222 is remaining after 2 half lives? Which isotope would have 50% remaining after 5730 years? How many half lives would occur after 96.4 days for Thorium-234? How many helium particles does Uranium235 release after 3 half lives?

10.2 Rates of Nuclear Decay


In radiocarbon dating, the age of an object is determined by comparing the objects carbon-14 levels with carbon-14 levels in the atmosphere. Carbon-14 dating can only be used for on objects that are 50,000 years old or less because all of it will have decayed by then. *Read p. 303 and do section review 1-6 p. 301

Section 10:3 Artificial Transmutation


Transmutation is the conversion of atoms of one element to atoms of another. It involves a nuclear change not a chemical change. Ex. Alchemist Scientists can perform artificial transmutation by bombarding atomic nuclei with high energy particles such as protons, neutrons, and alpha particles.

Elements with atomic number greater than 92 are called transuranium elements. Scientist can synthesize a transuranium element by the artificial transmutation of a lighter element.

Section 10.4 Fission and Fusion


The nucleus of an atom contains an enormous amount of energy During transmutation mass, from the nucleus, is converted into energy

A. Nuclear Forces strong nuclear force is the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus -over very short distances, the strong nuclear force is much greater than the electrical forces among the protons the more protons in a nucleus, the stronger the electric force, so in large nuclei there is more repulsive force Read p. 309 and explain the effect of the size of the nucleus on the strength of the nuclear force.

Nuclear Forces
A nucleus becomes unstable or radioactive when the strong nuclear force can no longer overcome the repulsive electric forces among the protons. All nuclei with 83 or more protons are radioactive. Look at your periodic table and list 8 radioactive elements in your notes.

Fission
Read last Paragraph p. 309 Fission is the splitting of one nucleus into two or more during fission tremendous amounts of -energy are produced from a very small mass (figure 18)

Fission
In 1905, 30 years before the discovery of fission, Albert Einstein introduced his now famous equation that relates mass to energy. E = mc2; m = the mass lost during transmutation and c = the speed of light (3.0 * 108 m/s) An example of a powerful explanation of this mass energy equation was the explosion of the first atomic bomb in 1945. during fission one reaction leads to a series of others causing a chain reaction

Open Response Notes


*read p. 311 and explain the differences between a controlled and an uncontrolled chain reaction. critical mass is the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction

nuclear power plants use controlled fission reactions of uranium-235 to generate heat and electricity Name one advantage and 3 disadvantages of nuclear power pp. 312313 generates nuclear waste p. 311 Fig.20 Read timeline and nuclear power station p. 312-314

Fusion
Fusion is a process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus. It requires extremely high temperatures. The sun and stars are powered by the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Plasma is a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons. It contains 2 types of particles which are nuclei and electrons.