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Endangered Species
Most common reason for loss of species: habitat destruction Question: What are edge effects? Methods for protecting species Preservation of wild spaces Controlled breeding programs Education Legislation

1. 2. 3. 4.

Why Biodiversity?
What is it? Variety of species living in ecosystems What are benefits? 1. Stable ecosystems 2. Medicines/drugs 3. Climate stabilizations 4. Nutrient stabilization

Biodiversity: 3 types
1. genetic diversity: variety of
genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population

increases the chances that some species will survive

changing environmental conditions the outbreak of disease.

Problem today: within endangered species (National

Geographic article)

Why does this matter?

Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity: Species

2. species diversity: number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community Problem today: endangered species
Hot spots

Why does this matter?

Biodiversity: Ecosystem

ecosystem diversity: variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere Problem today: Coral reef decline

Why does this matter?

It is likely that some of the worlds unidentified species will have economic value. A. true B. false

1. 2.


Biodiversity and Conservation

The Importance of Biodiversity

Most of the worlds food crops come from just a few species. Wild species serve as reservoirs of desirable genetic traits that might be needed to improve domestic crop species.

Teosinte plant

Arctic Seed Vault

Domestic corn plant

Biodiversity and Conservation

The Importance of Biodiversity (cont)

Scientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases.

Madagascar periwinkle

Biodiversity and Conservation

The Importance of Biodiversity (cont)

A healthy biosphere provides many services to humans and other organisms that live on Earth.
Green plants provide oxygen to the atmosphere and remove carbon dioxide. Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use.

Biodiversity and Conservation

Which has indirect economic value?

A. ecosystems that decompose wastes B. organisms that provide food and shelter C. plants that contain medicinal substances D. species that have desirable genetic traits

1. 2. 3. 4.


What is threatening biodiversity?

Is extinction natural?

Threats to Biodiversity
Extinction Rates Background extinction: The gradual process of species becoming extinct is Mass extinction: an event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time.

Threat to biodiversity
Overexploitation, or excessive use, of species that have economic value is a factor increasing the current rate of extinction

Threat to biodiversity
Disruption of Habitat
The declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem.

Threat to biodiversity
Fragmentation of Habitat

habitat fragmentation: separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land smaller the parcel of land --> fewer species Reduced reproduction Carving the large ecosystem into small parcels increases the number of edgescreating edge effects.

Threats to Biodiversity
Acid Precipitation Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients.

Threats to Biodiversity
Introduced Species - (Invasive Species)

Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat are known as introduced species.
Introduced species: reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators Ex: snakes on a plane!

Some more invasive species

QuickTime and a BMP decomp resso r are neede d to see this picture.

QuickTime and a BMP decomp resso r are need ed to see this picture.

Which describes the current rate of species disappearance?

A. background extinction B. mass extinction C. natural extinction D. progressive extinction

1. 2. 3. 4.



Thermal Pollution: Global Warming

Causes: Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases
CO, CO2,, CFCs, methane(CH4), H2O (v)

Results: trapped heat

Global Warming (cont)

Consequences: #1 Threat to Biodiversity! Melting of ice= Sea level rise, coastal flooding Climate change= drought, famine Ocean circulation= climate change, rainfall Economic impacts Habitat destruction


Fires over China

Shipping lane smoke

Pictures from Nova website

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Cause of global dimming:

Particulate matter, often sulfates and aerosols, collecting water drops= act as mirrors and reflect sunlight back out to space

Effects of global dimming

*Suppresses/masks the effect of global warming *Decreases pan evaporation rate *Effects plant growth/photosynthesis rates *Climate shifts-cooling of earth/rainfall shifts

QuickTime and a decompressor are neede d to see this picture.

What if we clean up the air (particulate pollution)?? We need to for health reasons If greenhouse gasses still produced, then no more masking and the warming is FAR worse-so we might breathe easier but all the bad effects of warming could devastate us

This graph compare the effects of different factors on the rise of temperaturesnote when aerosol/sulfate emissions began to go down what happens to the climate.

Thermal Pollution: Thermal Inversions

Cause: cold air layers over warm Results: pollution trapped
Ozone = O3

smog - breathing problems, health hazard to those with respiration problems like asthma San Fernando valley

Thermal Pollution: Aquatic

Over top
Water warms up at top of lake, dumps warm water into the river: changes fish populations: wont go past warm water to spawn

Out bottom:
Water is cold at bottom of lake: much colder than natural: again changing fish pop.

Other problems:
Fish ladders Silting in Controlled flooding

Red Tide (p547)

Dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax)
From Pyrrophyta Bioluminescent Produce neurotoxin

Filter feeders (clams/shellfish) Accumulate toxin when warm water causes algal bloom

Warm water: from waste water more decomposition - heat released

from power plant discharge

Bioaccumulation (Biological Magnification)

Insecticide (kills insects) Does not degrade easily Accumulates in living tissue

Prevents effective Calcium fixation Eggshells Eagles

Water--> algae--> fish---> bird

Rachel Carson

Unintended results: In non-targeted species due to biological magnification Accumulated amounts had greater effects through the food chain DDT banned in US Developing countries now? Residence time of chemicals in environment now

Ozone : located 6-30 miles

above us-blocks UV rays Holes being made by CFCs from products like coolants Ozone hole(in blue)

The ozone layer

QuickTime and a BMP decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Absorbs UV radiation, preventing much of it from contacting organisms in the biosphere.

Ozone thickness depletion

QuickTime and a BMP decomp resso r are neede d to see this picture.

Run-off Dead Zone Excess decomposition Anoxic (without O2)
Changes what can grow there

Conserving Biodiversity
Natural Resources The consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed.

Conserving Biodiversity
renewable resources: Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed

nonrenewable resources: Resources that are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time.

Energy Resources: in order of use

Fossil fuels Adv: infrastructure; cheap; versatile Dis: non-renewable; polluting; emissions

Energy Resources: in order of use

Energy Source Advantages Disadvantages

Fossil Fuels: coal, oil Natural Gas Hydropow er (dams: turbines) Nuclear

Infrastructure, versatile, Polluting, greenhouse cheap emissions, non-renewable Easy to use in homes, efficient heating, cooking, hot water Non-polluting to atm; somewhat renewable; cheap Accessible; somewhat renewable Emissions, polluting; Dangers: leaks, explosions Available sites used; habitat impacts: fish, etc. Problem with waste storage; public stigma for safety; radiation

QuickTime an d a decompressor are need ed to see this p icture .

Adv: Non-polluting to atm; somewhat renewable; cheap Available sites used; Habitat impacts: fish, etc

Accessible; somewhat renewable Problem with storage of wastes; public stigma for safety: radiation

Energy cont
Energy Source Advantages Disadvantages

Biomass burning
(common for developing
countries for cooking; heating)

Renewable (replanting); cheap

Emissions, incomplete combustion; deforestation; inefficient

Ethanol (from corn, sugarcane, switch grass) Wind

Renewable (replanting); versatile Renewable; no emissions

Renewable; no emissions


Emissions, high water usage, efficiency problems, uses same land as food production Locations; NIMBY; bird deaths; Costly now, not 24 hour source Expensive; not 24 hr source; scale

Wind Power
Cape Cod AT Locations; NIMBY; bird deaths Costly now; not 24 hr source

Types: Photovoltaic Thermal
Expensive; not 24 hr source; scale

Energy cont
Energy Source Advantages Disadvantages


Renewable; no emissions Renewable; no emissions

Locations; impacts to habitats unknown; scale Efficiency; costly; small scale (cell phones, etc)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Tidal turbine

Conserving Biodiversity
Sustainable use means using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere.
Peace Plus One

Biodiversity and Conservation

For which human activity is sustainable use not possible?

A. farming B. logging C. oil drilling D. commercial fishing

1. 2. 3. 4.


Conserving Biodiversity
How can we improve sustainability? How do we remediate? Who does this work?
(could it be YOU?)

Protecting Biodiversity
Corridors between habitat fragments Restoring Ecosystems

Using Organisms to help


The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area
Biological Augmentation
(Biological Control)

Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem

Carrying Capacity
(see ppt Ecology part 2, slide 19-29)