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The Benefits of Heat Pipes in Hot & Humid Climates

Allan Westbury Managing Director S & P Coils Ltd. Leicester, UK

Presentation Contents

Problems of Hot & Humid Climatic Conditions What is a Heat Pipe? Heat Pipes & how they can HELP Conclusion

Problems of Hot & Humid Climates

Main influences on comfort:


Dry bulb temperature Air speed Air humidity Radiation

Ideal Comfort Conditions:


RH 40 - 60 % Temperature 20 - 23C (68 - 75F)

Proper humidity levels


ASHRAE Recommended

Safety margin

Health Problems

Mildew Growth

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

% Relative Humidity

Typical Ambient conditions


35C @ 80% RH 45C @ 30% RH 35C @ 20% RH 20C @ 90% RH

35C @ 80% RH

45C @ 30% RH

20C @ 90% RH

35C @ 20% RH

Comfort conditions

35C @ 80% RH

Comfort condition, 20 to 24C, 40 to 70% RH


45C @ 30% RH

20C @ 90% RH

35C @ 20% RH

Historical Air Conditioning

Examples of wind towers on some older buildings.

Modern Air Conditioning

Dubai Convention Centre

Pyramid Centre

Mercato Mall

Doha Sheraton Hotel

Decorative features

Recent Practice

Air is cooled to supply conditions

Warm humid air, 42C

Saturated air, 18C

Condensation

Recent Practice
Taking a point in this envelope, 42C @ 35% RH, and then cooling to 18C the air becomes saturated and unsuitable for supply.

Recent Practice

If this saturated air with a high moisture content is supplied into the space we will have two major problems:

Problem 1
The building occupants will feel very uncomfortable and health problems may arise.
HOTEL

Dissatisfied, unhappy customers and even potential insurance claims. Reduction in employee efficiency and, at worst, lost working days due to sickness.

OFFICE

Problem 2
The building fabric and fittings will deteriorate due to the high moisture levels creating excessive maintenance costs. This can manifest itself in several ways Discolouration of walls Mould growth Corrosion of metalworks Detachment of tiles etc. from walls/ceilings

Dehumidifying with coils

Generally the air is overcooled

Warm humid air, 42C

Comfortable air, 18- 22C

Condensation

Reheat Coil

Increase in running costs


Overcooling the air and then re-heating gives rise to additional cooling & heating loads.
A

The downside of reheat

The cost of reheating the air is high.


It also means we have to include a whole package of extra equipment and controls.

The pay-off

Overcooling means an increased cooling load. = increased running costs. This in turn means a larger chiller unit. = increased capital costs. Re-heating will require energy. = increased running costs. Re-heating also adds equipment and complexity.= increased capital costs.

The Economic Solution

So, while the theory is very attractive, the economics present a large deterrent. Ideally we would like to cool the air to a comfortable temperature and remove moisture, but without the need for expensive reheat. It sounds impossible, but by using heat pipes it can be achieved.

Heat Pipes

The principle of heat pipe operation

Heat Pipes and dehumidification


Heat Pipes and heat recovery

What is a Heat Pipe ?

A heat pipe is an extremely efficient conductor of heat.

By using the latent capacity of the fluid the heat pipe transfers heat at a very high rate.

Basic principle of operation


A simple heat pipe comprises a hollow tube partly filled with a working fluid

Heat out

Heat out

Using the latent capacity of the fluid, we can transfer large amounts of heat very rapidly from a hot point to a cold point on the tube wall.

Heat in

Heat in

Summary of Characteristics

Heat is transferred by latent means giving a heat transfer rate of around 1000 times that of a solid copper rod Vaporisation and condensation take place at the same temperature allowing high heat transfer at low temperature differences Heat pipes without wicks (Thermosyphons) rely on gravity to return the condensed liquid.

Heat Pipe applications

1.) Heat Pipes for enhanced dehumidification.

Adding a Heat Pipe

The heat pipe improves the efficiency of the system.


18C

42C

36C

12C

Heat Pipe in practice

Plan view of cooling coil.


Heat Pipe pre-cool Airflow
Cooling Coil

Heat Pipe re-heat Airflow

42/28.5C

18/14.1C 12/11.8C

36/27.1C

18 / 14.1 C 42 / 28.5oC 36 / 27.1 C


o

12 / 11.8oC

Airflow

2-Row Horseshoe.

Horseshoe Heat Pipes are used either for original supply or for retrofit applications. The unit will be installed around an existing cooling coil.

2-Row Combi Coil.

Heat Pipe Effect

1-2 Heat Pipe pre-cool


2-3 Cooling coil 3-4 Heat Pipe re-heat Resultant energy saving of up to 30%. 3
2 1

In Practice
If the heatpipe is designed for a maximum temperature. What would the off condition be at other conditions?

Economic Design

Base design on commonest conditions not maximum conditions. This in turn means removing need for additional reheat. For close control some additional cooling may be required.

Bin Data

By using Bin Data we can identify the commonest or average condition.

Worked Example
Based on average ambient condition, 32 C @ 58% RH. Cooling load - 51.3kW Heating load - 7.2kW Total load - 58.5kW

Worked Example
Air volume Heat Pipe, Add in the : 4.0 m3/s Air on: 40/27.8C, 40%RH Heat Pipe Pre-cool - 7.2kW Supply air Re-heat - 7.2kW Heat Pipe to room: 20/14.8Cload - 44.1kW New Clg New Htg load - 0kW Saving 14.4kW

Worked Example
At the final airconditions:is If alternative condition Heat Pipeat 18 C, then a required pre-cool : 9.5 kW Heat Pipe re-heat : 9.5 kW secondary cooling unit Cooling load - 54.3kW can trim the temperature. Heating load - 0kW Saving 19kW

Secondary Cooling Schematic


Primary Cooling Secondary Cooling

19.5 / 14.5oC (60%RH) 38 / 27.5 C (45% RH)


o

Fan Coil Unit


18 / 14oC (65% RH)

FAHU
Air Handling Unit
18 / 14 C (65% RH)
o

Duct Mounted Coil


18 / 14 C (65% RH)
o

Summary

Requires no energy to run, being driven by the cooling coil. Nett energy savings of around 30% compared to standard cooling and reheat. Lower cooling load = smaller chiller/ compressor. Design for average conditions to eliminate reheat. Easy installation. Controlled by the cooling coil.

Heat Pipe applications

2.) Heat and coolth recovery.

Heat and coolth recovery

Used to transfer heat between supply and exhaust air streams where :

There is a large difference between supply and exhaust temperatures.


There are high air volumes involved.

Efficiencies of up to 65% can be achieved giving significant energy savings.

Basic design features

The Heat Pipe unit straddles the supply and exhaust ducts A centre tube plate prevents cross contamination between airflows No pump requirement to transfer the heat as with a run around coil system Airstreams must be in counterflow

Orientation

Available in both vertical & horizontal arrangements. The warmer airstream must be at the bottom in the vertical mode.

Exhaust Air

Supply Air

Horizontal orientation

Benefits

Requires no energy to run. No maintenance. No cross contamination. Can be sized to suit the ductwork or AHU. Easy condensation removal.

Conclusion

Heat Pipes are extremely efficient heat transfer devices By installing across supply and exhaust ducts we can recover waste energy. Typical efficiencies 50% to 60 % By wrapping The Heat Pipe around a cooling coil we bypass a certain amount of heat, saving on the cooling load and giving free reheat. Nett energy savings - around 30 %

Completed projects
Contractor
Garmco BAH Al Hamad - Shj. SAS Raddison Muscat Thermo - Dubai Al Hamed Nael Est. - Al Ain Al Hamad - Shj. Al Hamad - Shj. Geco - Sharjah Sensaire - Dubai Majid Al Futtaim Verger Delport Viking Viking Al Futtaim W.S. Atkins RPW RPW Arab Consultants Sharjah Municipality Dubai Municipality Mario & Ass. GHQ Syna dev. Artek

Consultant

AHU Supplier
York Clever Saiver SKM Carrier Clever Clever Clever SKM Clever Saiver York Viking Viking SKM

Qty.
8 4 2 3 4 2 2 6 3 2 145 2 2 1

Type of Project
New Retrofit Retrofit Retrofit New New New New New Retrofit New New New New

Project
Aluminium Store Pyramid shopping center Raddison Crown Plaza MW-1699 Hiltonia Beach Samar Tower- Shj. Al Ansari Bldg. Swimm. Pool Children's City City Center Industrial city - ADH Al Nahdha Shopping Sharjah Mega Mall Sharjah Cricket Stadium

ETA
Carrier Gibca - Sharjah

Spectrum - Delhi

Novair
Carrier Petra

5
37 1

New
Retrofit Retrofit

Grand Hayat - Mumbai


Le-Meridian - Dubai Coral Beach Resort

Completed projects (Cont..)


Contractor
Transgulf ETA Geco - Sharjah B K Gulf Sensaire - Dubai Gibca - Sharjah Transgulf Remco Mekar Al Futtaim Carrier Gulf Star - ADH RPW Shadid Engg. RMJM DPA Shadid Engg. Pvt. Deptt.

Consultant
RPW RMJM Cab - Sharjah RMJM Arif & Bintouk

AHU Supplier
York Clever SKM Interklima Carrier Clever York Euroclima Mekar Aftron Carrier SKM

Qty.
8 33 90 6 8 4 24 6 30 1 1 2

Type of Project
New New New New New New New New New New New New

Project
Spinneys - Jumeira World Convention centre Indoor Sports Hall World Convention centre Novotel & Ibis Hotel Coral Beach Resort Royal Mirage hotel Dubai Women's association Exhibition Hall 1 & 2 DPA club Emaar bank pvt. Villa at Jebel Dana

SKM - Sharjah
Dhabi Contracting McQuay FNC Bu-Haleeba Junker

Ian Banhem
Al Turath Mott / EMS Arkiteknik Gemac Artek

SKM
Clever McQuay Dunham Bush Mekar Junker

8
14 6 41 2 8

New
New New New Retrofit New

Kharbash Bldg.
Wedding hall West Side Marina Neighborhood centre Ruler's villa Dawoodi Bohra center

Dehumidification selection

Heat Recovery Selection

Any Questions ?

For further information or to download latest copies of our selection software, visit our website:

www.spcoils.co.uk

HEAT PIPES:
The Benefits of Heat Pipes in Hot & Humid Climates Allan Westbury Managing Director S & P Coils Ltd. Leicester, UK

Problems of Hot & Humid Climatic Conditions

Main influences on comfort:


Dry bulb temperature Air speed Air humidity Radiation RH 40 - 60 % Temperature 20 - 23C (68 - 75F)

Ideal Comfort Conditions: