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Leaders are born, not made.
– Leaders have some inborn, exceptional
qualities bestowed upon them by divine
– These qualities are sufficient for a leader
to be successful
– These qualities neither can be enhanced
through education and training nor it can
be shared
– These qualities make a leader effective,
situational factors have no effect
• “Trust men and they will be
true to you; treat them greatly
and they will show themselves
to be great.”
• Ralph Waldo Emerson
• Leadership - The ability to
influence a group toward the
achievement of goals.
Personality theories
• Psycho Analitical Theory
• Erikson Stages
• Immaturity- maturity Theory
• Self theory
• Trait theory
1. Psycho Analitical Theory
or Freudian stages
• Concept of unconscious nature
• Human are motivated more by unseen forces
than by conscious and relational thoughts.
• The unconscious framework includes three
psycho analytic concepts
• The ID
• The EGO
• The Super EGO
2. Erikson’s Stages
• Erikson describes eight developmental astages
as we grow:
1. Infancy/ Trust vs Mistrust.
2. Early childhood autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. Play age/ initiative vs Guilt
4. School age/ Industry vs inferiority
5. Adolescence/ identity vs role diffusion
6. Early adulthood/ intimacy vs isolation
7. Adulthood/ generatively vs stagnation
8. Mature adulthood/ ego integrity vs despair
3. Chris Argyri’s Immaturity-
Maturity Theory
• Human personality progresses along a
continuum - Immaturity as an infant to
maturity as an adult.
• Personality organizational employees can be
described by the mature end of the continuum
4. Self theory
• Carl Roger’s self concept:of ‘I’ or ‘Me’.
• There are 4 factors of Se
• Defined the self or self concept as an
organized consistent conceptual aspect
composed of perceptions lf concept:
– Self image
– Ideal self
– Looking glass self
– Real self
5.Trait theory
• First systematic attempts to study leadership
• Arose from the ‘Great Man theory’.
• Trait- A variety of individual attributes that
predict whether a person will attain a position
of leadership and be effective in it.
• Popular between 1930 and 1950.
• Assumption: a certain set of traits are
prerequisite for effective leadership.
Trait - Types
• Traits

• Traits possessed by successful leaders:

» Intelligence
» Physiological factors
» Emotional stability
» Intense inner motivational drive
» Human relations attitude
» Vision for foresight
» Empathy
» Fairness and objectivity
» Technical skills
» Open mind and adaptability
» Art of communication
» Social skills
Trait theory – implications

• Leader requires some traits and qualities to

be effective.
• Many of these qualities may be developed in
individuals through training and
development programmes.
Strengths & Weaknesses of the
Trait approach
Strengths Weaknesses
• Intuitively appealing • Indefinite list of traits.
• A large body of • Research lacks
research supports the consistency.
• Judgments subjective.
• Highlights the role of
• Little is known about
leadership process.
how leadership traits
• Highlights the role of affect outcomes.
personality and
• Leaves little room for
procedures and self-
Behavioural theory

• Emphasises that strong leadership is the

result of effective role behaviour.
• Concentrate on what leaders actually do
rather than on their qualities.
• Two views of leadership behaviour:
– Functional
– Dysfunctional
• Different patterns of behaviour are observed
and categorised as 'styles of leadership'.
Behavioural theory -
• Managers can shape their behaviour which
appear functional and discard those which
appear dysfunctional.
• Different leadership styles are used to
analyze the leadership behaviour.
• The time element will be the
decider of the effectiveness of
behaviour and not the
behaviour itself.
• Effectiveness of leadership
behaviour depends on various
external factors.
Situational theory
• This approach sees leadership as specific to
the situation in which it is being exercised.
• Also called contingency theory.
• Applied first time in 1920, in the armed
force of Germany to get good generals under
different situations.
• Effectiveness of leadership is affected by the
factors associated with the leader and
Leader’s Leader’s hierarchical
characteristics position

Leadership effectiveness performance


Subordinate’s Leader’s Group Organizational factors

characteristics situation factors
Situational theory
• The major theories contributing towards this
school of thought are:
– Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Fiedler's Contingency Model
• Fred Fielder – Father of contingency theory.
• Assumes that leaders are predisposed to a
particular set of leadership behaviour.
• Fiedler's contingency theory postulates that
there is no single best way for managers to
• Situations will create different leadership
• Task oriented leaders
• Relationship oriented leaders
Fiedler's Contingency Model
• Fiedler looked at three situations that could
define the condition of a managerial task:
• 1. Leader member relations: How well do the manager
and the employees get along?
• 2. Task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly
unstructured, or somewhere in between?
• 3. Position power: How much authority does the
manager possess?
1. Theories of Leadership
2. Fiedler's Contingency Model
3. Situational theory