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Computing properties of the 3D world from one or more digital images To make useful decisions about real physical

objects and scenes based on sensed images

What is computer vision??


Image understanding (AI behavior) A sensor modality for robotics Computer emulation of human vision Inverse of Computer Graphics

Objectives
Segmentation Breaking images and video into meaningful pieces Reconstructing the 3D world from multiple views from shading from structural models Recognition What are the objects in a scene? What is happening in a video? Control Obstacle avoidance Robots, machines, etc.

Types Of Features:

Spatially localized: Those features that are found in sub-regions of one or more images, corresponding to specific locations in the physical world e.g. -edge detection. Whole-image :Those features that are functions of the entire image or set of images, corresponding to a large visually connected area in the physical world. Small changes in robot position does not have much effect on image.

Challenges:

Real Time Operation Robust to real-world conditions

Data reduction-Images capture a lot of information; we need to preserve useful data while discarding redundant data. Image processing employs methods based on change in illumination of basic signal Need to smooth the signal to avoid random variations in intensity due to noise Hence the use of low-pass filter as the first step

Accept/reject certain components Achieved using Filters Linear Filters: Every pixel replaced by a linear combination of its neighbors. Shift-Invariant Filters: Same operation is performed on every pixel.

An averaging filter.

Normalized Cross Correlation


J(x)=

Correlation in 2D

Similar to correlation except filter is flipped before correlation

For 2D

Edge contours in the image correspond to important scene contours Edges correspond to sharp change in intensity Change is measure by 1st order derivative in 1D Bigger the change in intensity->Larger the derivative The image is smoothened before differentiating

For 2D Gradient is found The pixels with gradient below certain threshhold value are discarded

Shifting a window in any direction should give a large change in intensity in at least 2 directions

Football Movies Surveillance Face recognition & Biometrics Road monitoring Industrial inspection Robotic control

Autonomous driving Space: planetary exploration, docking Medicine patholog surgery, diagnosis Microscopy Military Remote Sensing

Fingerprint sensor captures digital image of fingerprint pattern. The digital image is processed to create a collection of extracted features. Relative position of features such as presence or absence of circular patterns is measured. This data is used for matching.

Database consisting of facial features such as structure of eyes, nose, face size etc. When we half-press the shutter, the face-detection algorithm in computer takes image as input compares with the facial structure database .

Has a simple CCD digital camera Uses both visible and near-infrared light for high contrast picture Analyzes pattern in iris Translates into codes Matches with existing database Form of bio-metric identification Can be used even by blind people

STAIR at Stanford