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The Urinary System

3 Functions of the Urinary System

1. Excretion:
removal of organic wastes from body fluids discharge of waste products of blood plasma volume and solute concentration

1. Elimination:

1. Homeostatic regulation:

Organs that excrete urine Organs that eliminate urine:

ureters (paired tubes) urinary bladder (muscular sac) urethra (exit tube)


Urinary Tract

Process of eliminating urine Contraction of muscular urinary bladder forces urine through urethra, and out of body

Urination or Micturition

5 Homeostatic Functions of Urinary System

1. Regulate blood volume and blood pressure:
by adjusting volume of water lost in urine releasing erythropoietin and renin

2. Regulate plasma ion concentrations:

sodium, potassium, and chloride ions (by controlling quantities lost in urine) calcium ion levels (through synthesis of calcitriol)

3. Help stabilize blood pH:

by controlling loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine

4. Conserve valuable nutrients:

by preventing excretion while excreting organic waste products

5. Assist liver to detoxify poisons

Types of kidneys

Metanephric kidneys





Anterior nephrogenic mesoderm Pronephric duct Adult fishes, Larvae of amphibians

Middle Posterior nephrogenic nephrogenic mesoderm mesoderm Mesonephric Metanephric Duct duct Adult amphibians Reptiles, aves, mammals



The Position of the Kidneys

Are located either side of vertebral column:
left kidney lies superior to right kidney superior surface capped by adrenal gland

Position is maintained by:

overlying peritoneum contact with adjacent visceral organs supporting connective tissues
Figure 262

Is protected and stabilized by 3 concentric layers of connective tissue: 1. renal capsule 1. A layer of collagen fibers 2. Covers outer surface of entire organ 2. adipose capsule 1. A thick layer of adipose tissue 2. Surrounds renal capsule 3. renal fascia 1. A dense, fibrous outer layer 2. Anchors kidney to surrounding structures

Point of entry for renal artery and renal nerves Point of exit for renal vein and ureter

Internal cavity within kidney Lined by fibrous renal capsule

Renal Sinus

Bound to outer surfaces of structures in renal sinus Stabilizes positions of ureter, renal blood vessels, and nerves

Renal Capsule

Superficial portion of kidney in contact with renal capsule Reddish brown and granular

Renal Cortex

6 to 18 distinct conical or triangular structures in renal medulla:

base abuts cortex tip (renal papilla) projects into renal sinus

Renal Pyramids

Bands of cortical tissue separate adjacent renal pyramids Extend into medulla Have distinctly granular texture

Renal Columns

Consists of:

Renal Lobe

renal pyramid overlying area of renal cortex adjacent tissues of renal columns

Produces urine

Ducts discharge urine into minor calyx:

cup-shaped drain

Renal Papilla

Formed by 4 or 5 minor calyces

Major Calyx

Large, funnel-shaped chamber Consists of 2 or 3 major calyces Fills most of renal sinus Connected to ureter, which drains kidney

Renal Pelvis

Functional Anatomy of Nephron & Collecting System

Figure 266

Renal Tubule
Long tubular passageway Begins at renal corpuscle Spherical structure consisting of:

Renal Corpuscle
Bowmans capsule cup-shaped chamber capillary network (glomerulus)

Consists of 50 intertwining capillaries Blood delivered via afferent arteriole Blood leaves in efferent arteriole


Occurs in renal corpuscle Blood pressure:
forces water and dissolved solutes out of glomerular capillaries into capsular space produces proteinfree solution (filtrate) similar to blood plasma

3 Functions of Renal Tubule

1. Reabsorb useful organic nutrients that enter filtrate 2. Reabsorb more than 90% of water in filtrate 3. Secrete waste products that failed to enter renal corpuscle through filtration at glomerulus

Renal Tubule Segments

Located in cortex:
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Separated by loop of Henle:

U-shaped tube extends partially into medulla

Traveling along tubule, filtrate (tubular fluid) gradually changes composition Changes vary with activities in each segment of nephron Empties into the collecting system:
a series of tubes carries tubular fluid away from nephron

Collecting Ducts

Receive fluid from many nephrons Each collecting duct:

begins in cortex descends into medulla carries fluid to papillary duct that drains into a minor calyx

The Renal Corpuscle

Each renal corpuscle:
is 150250 m in diameter includes Bowmans capsule and glomerulus

The Loop of Henle

Also called nephron loop Renal tubule turns toward renal medulla: Descending limb:
leads to loop of Henle fluid flows toward renal pelvis

Ascending limb: Each limb contains:

thick segment thin segment fluid flows toward renal cortex

The Thick Descending Limb

Has functions similar to PCT:
pumps sodium & chloride ions out of tubular fluid

Ascending Limbs

Of juxtamedullary nephrons in medulla:

create high solute conc. in peritubular fluid

The Thin Segments

Are freely permeable to water, not to solutes Water movement helps conc. tubular fluid Ends at a sharp angle near the renal corpuscle where DCT begins

The Thick Ascending Limb

Organic Waste Products

Are dissolved in bloodstream Are eliminated only while dissolved in urine Removal is accompanied by water loss Concentrated urine:
12001400 milliosmols/L (4 times plasma concentration)

A Summary of Renal Function

Figure 2616a

Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination

Takes place in the urinary tract:
ureters urinary bladder urethra

Organs for the Conduction and Storage of Urine

Figure 2618a

Organs for the Conduction and Storage of Urine

Figure 2618b

Organs for the Conduction and Storage of Urine

Figure 2618c

The Ureters
Are a pair of muscular tubes Extend from kidneys to urinary bladder Begin at renal pelvis attached to posterior abdominal wall Penetrate posterior wall of the urinary bladder Pass through bladder wall at oblique angle Ureteral openings are slitlike rather than rounded Shape helps prevent backflow of urine:
when urinary bladder contracts

Peristaltic Contractions
Begin at renal pelvis Sweep along ureter Force urine toward urinary bladder Every 30 seconds

The Urinary Bladder

Is a hollow, muscular organ Functions as temporary reservoir urine storage Full bladder can contain 1 liter of urine

Bladder Position
Is stabilized by several peritoneal folds Posterior, inferior, and anterior surfaces:
lie outside peritoneal cavity

Ligamentous bands:
anchor urinary bladder to pelvic and pubic bones

Umbilical Ligaments
Are vestiges of 2 umbilical arteries Middle umbilical ligament extends:
from anterior, superior border toward umbilicus

Lateral umbilical ligaments:

pass along sides of bladder to umbilicus

Lining the urinary bladder has folds (rugae):

that disappear as bladder fills

The Mucosa

The Trigone of the Urinary Bladder

Is a triangular area bounded by:
openings of ureters entrance to urethra

Acts as a funnel:
channels urine from bladder into urethra

The Urethral Entrance

Lies at apex of trigone:
at most inferior point in urinary bladder

The Neck of the Urinary Bladder

Is the region surrounding urethral opening Contains a muscular internal urethral sphincter (sphincter vesicae- Smooth muscle fibers of sphincter provide involuntary control of urine discharge)

The Urethra
Extends from neck of urinary bladder To the exterior of the body

The Male Urethra

Extends from neck of urinary bladder To tip of penis (1820 cm)

3 Parts of the Male Urethra

1. Prostatic urethra:
passes through center of prostate gland short segment that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm extends from urogenital diaphragm to external urethral orifice

1. Membranous urethra:

3. Spongy urethra (penile urethra):

The Female Urethra

Is very short (35 cm) Extends from bladder to vestibule External urethral orifice is near anterior wall of vagina

The External Urethral Sphincter

In both sexes:
is a circular band of skeletal muscle where urethra passes through urogenital diaphragm

Acts as a valve Is under voluntary control:

via perineal branch of pudendal nerve

Has resting muscle tone Voluntarily relaxation permits micturition

Types of animals according to reproduction

Oviparous Viviparous ovoviviparous

Main functions of male reproducitve system

For production,maintenance, and transportation of the male sex cell (sperm) For discharge of the sperm cell to the female reproductive tract For production of male hormone testosterone For secretion of semen For development of male secondary sex characteristics

Male Genital Ducts

Cyclostomes, fishes and urodeles

Lack seminiferous tubules but has cystlike seminiferous ampullae Sperm duct are culminated in a mesonephric duct which carries no sperm Sperm duct empties into the cloaca Empty into the urethra (prostatic, membranous,penile) Glands: ampullary, seminal vesicles, coagulating gland


Below placental mammals Placental mammales

Intromittent organs
Class Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibians Reptiles Aves Mammals Intromittent organs Claspers (with siphon sacs) gonopodium cloaca Hemipenis, penis Penis (ducks, ostrich) Penis


Development of male reproductive organs

Male sex organs are formed prenatally under the influence of the testosterone hormone At 10th week of development, the male organs are defined During puberty, the secondary male sex organs mature and become functional

1. PENIS the pendant organ anterior to the scrotum and attached to the pubis - parts: a. shaft b. root c. glans penis - functions: a. organ for coitus b. convey urine and seminal fluid to the outside of the body

I. External structures of male sex organs

Long,slender tube which is connected to the ejaculatory duct Parts: a. prostatic urethra b. membranous urethra c. penile urethra Functions : passageway of semen to the female reproductive tract Passageway of the urine from the urinary bladder


2. Scrotum Thin pouch of skin, posterior to the penis and external to the testes Contains several nerves and blood vessels Function: enclose and protect the testes

The primary sex organs Located posterior to the penis within the scrotum Parts: a. seminiferous tubules b. cells of leydig Functions: production of sperm cells (spermatogenesis) production of hormones

the mass of tubules attached to the posterior surface of thetestes Functions: site for sperm maturation for storage of spermatozoa

Ducts extending from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct Functions: storage of spermatozoa,transport of sperm during ejaculation

Male Internal Reproductive Organs 1. EJACULATORY DUCTS

Short ducts between the ductus deferentia and the prostatic urethra Functions: receives the spermatozoa and additives to produce seminal fluid

A. SEMINAL VESICLES Club-shaped glands posterior to the prostate and are attached to the ejaculatory glands Functions: secrete alkaline fluid (60%) of the semen which contain nutrients and prostaglandins

Walnut-shaped gland at the base of the urinary bladder Surrounds the prostatic urethra Functions : secretes alkaline fluid (20%) that help neutralize the acidic vaginal environment and enhance the motility of the sperm


Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate Empty into the membranous urethra Function: - secretes fluid that lubricates the urethra ] and the end of penis - cleanses the urethra prior to the ejaculation



Both sexes have reproductive organs call GENITALS or GENITALIA, designed for the purpose of intercourse and conception. Only the female has organs for pregnancy and childbirth.

Types of uterus
Uterus 1. Duplex Characteristics Vertebrates 2 distinct uteri,lower oviducts Rodents,lagomorphs unite to form the vagina Lower end of the uteri fuse to carnivores form the body,2 horns, 1 partition of the body Lower end of the uteri fuse to ungulates form the body,2 horns, no partition of the body Uteri completely fused to form Primates, man large median body

2. Bipartitite

3. Biconuuate

4. simplex

a. Differences in Ovaries
Class Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibians Reptiles Compact Have central cavity Folded,thin -walled sacs Has numerous,internal,irregular fluidfilled lacunae; turtles and crocodiles have compact ovaries Same as reptiles compact ovaries

Aves Mammals

Genital tracts below placental mammals

Agnathans absent Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibians Reptiles Aves Mullerian ducts become oviducts (shell gland and uterus) Aberrant, oviducts arise as caudally directed folds Oviducts (glandular),ovisacs (acumulated eggs) Spematheca (storage of sperm received during mating) Magnum(albumen-secretng area) Uterus (shell gland) Vagina ( entrane to cloaca Falloppian tubes, body of uterus


Homology in urogenital structure

Structure 1. Mesonephric duct 2. Mullerian Duct 3. Gonadal ridge 4. Gubernaculum Males Females Vas defrens,epididymis Gartners Duct Appendix testis Testis, rete testis gubernaculum Oviduct, uterus Ovary,rete ovarii Ovarian ligament,round ligament of uterus Labia majora Clitoris Labia minora Urogenital sinus

5. Genital Swelling 6. Genital Tubercle 7. Genital Folds 8. Urogenital Sinus

Scrotal sacs Penis Contribute to penis urethra

Terminal segment of the hindgut that receives the large intestines and the urinary and genital ducts and opens to the exterior through the vent In reptiles,birds, monotremes divided into: a. Urodeum receives urinary and genital ducts b. Coprodeum receives rectum - In placental mammals except monkey, apes, and man, becomes completely divided inot urigenital sinus and rectum


Vulva: the general term to describe all the external female sex organs. Pudendum or Pubes: the area in the body where the sex organs are located. Mons Pubis: a mound of fatty tissue which covers the pubic bone. At puberty this area is covered with coarse pubic hair. The mons contains many touch sensitive receptors. Labia Majora: (large lips) two folds of skin running from the mons pubis to below the vaginal opening. The labia majora meet and fold together forming protection for the genitals. The labia majora are covered with pubic hair and contain many touch sensitive receptors.

Labia Minora: two smaller folds of tissue which lie just within the labia majora. The labia minora join at the top, forming a hood over the clitoris. The labia minora are without hair and are rich in touch receptors and blood vessels. Clitoris: the center of sexual sensation and stimulation in the female. It is composed of erectile tissues and many sensitive nerve endings. It is found where the folds of the labia minora meet in the front. Urethra: below the clitoris, the opening to the bladder.

Hymen: a thin ring of tissue covering the opening to the vagina. It is the dividing line between external and internal sex organs. It has been over emphasized as a sign of virginity. Vagina: female organ of intercourse, it is actually an empty passageway leading from the vaginal opening to the uterus. It is only 3-4 inches long and shaped like a flattened funnel.


1-channel for the menstrual flow 2- receptacle for the male penis during intercourse 3-birth canal -the vaginal walls are made of many small folds of membrane that stretch greatly to accommodate a baby during birth.

Cervix: the neck or opening of the uterus. A normal healthy cervix is the strongest muscle in the body. It dips down about half an inch into the vagina. It is normally plugged by mucus. It stays tightly closed during pregnancy, but thins and opens for the delivery of the baby

Uterus: the uterus is a hollow, muscular organ shaped somewhat like an upside-down pear, about three inches long and two inches wide. Function: The uterus has one main function to protect and nourish a fetus until it is ready to live outside the mothers body. The walls of the uterus stretch much like a balloon that is blown up. After childbirth the uterus shrinks back to the original shape in 6-8 weeks.

3 layers of the uterus

1. epimetrium connective, outermost covering 2. myometrium muscular wall,intermetdiate layer 3. endometrium epithelial, innermost layer of the uterus

Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes):

two tubes shaped like arched and twisting bridges, high on either side of the uterus. They are about four inches long and 3/16 inch in diameter (the size of cooked spaghetti). carry egg cells toward the uterus and sperm cells toward the egg cell.

site for fertilization. Fertilization takes place in the outer third of the oviduct. The oviducts are funnel shaped and near the ovary. They have finger-like projections that reach out and encircle the ovum after ovulation takes place. Each oviduct is lined with many hair like fibers called cilia. This motion carries the egg cell toward the uterus.

two solid egg-shaped structures about the size of peach pits. They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. They have two main functions: 1-produce female sex hormones ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE.

a. Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics and the sex drive in females. It spurs the onset of puberty and is responsible for OVULATION. b. Progesterone builds up the lining of the uterus called the endometrium in preparation for the fertilized ovum

2- stores and releases the ova or female egg cell. - The female baby is born with all the ova she will ever have (about 200,000 in each ovary). - Some of the ova disappear; others are dormant until each is ripened and released after puberty. -

- Nature is very generous since only about 50,000 ova survive at adolescence and about 400 will never ripen to become available for fertilization. - After menopause the remaining ova no longer ripen or develop.

Site of material exchange between the embryo/fetus and the mother Composed of chorionic villi and uterine lining Chorionic vesicles refers to the whole complex of the extraembryonic membrane and the embryo

Types of placenta:
I. According to contact a. Deciduous b. Non-deciduous II. According to chorionic villi a. Zonary b. Discoidal c. Coteledonary d. diffused

Cat vs human placenta

Basis 1. contact 2. Chorionic villi 3. Vascularization 4. Extraembryonic membrane Cat Deciduous Zonary Man Deciduous Discoidal

Endotheliochorial Hemochorial chorioallantoic chorioallantoic


Menarche VS Menopause
Menarche the first menstrual flow which occurs between 9-12 years of age Menopause the cessation of menstruation which occurs after 35 reproductive years 40s or 50s