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Well Log Interpretation

Well Log Interpretation Earth & Environmental Science University of Texas at Arlington

Earth & Environmental Science

University of Texas at Arlington

Interpretation

Interpretation The primary goal of well log interpretation is to determine whether there is petroleum, and

The primary goal of well log interpretation is to determine whether there is petroleum, and if so, how much can be recovered and how fast it will flow.

Interpretation The primary goal of well log interpretation is to determine whether there is petroleum, and

Well log interpretation is used to determine the

economic viability of the well: How profitable it will be

and how soon the drilling costs can be recovered.

Interpretation

Interpretation Unless the stratigraphy and reservoirs are well known, the first step is to scan the

Unless the stratigraphy and reservoirs are

Interpretation Unless the stratigraphy and reservoirs are well known, the first step is to scan the

well known, the first

step is to scan the

well log for likely reservoirs.

The well site geologist will have information about the location of

petroleum shows

Interpretation

Interpretation Which logs would be used for each of these steps? What would you look for

Which logs would be used for each of

Interpretation Which logs would be used for each of these steps? What would you look for

these steps? What

would you look for in

those logs?

Quick-Look

Methods:

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt One of the reconnaissance methods is the relationship between the SP curve and

Rxo/Rt

One of the reconnaissance methods is the relationship between the SP curve and the resistivity ratio R xo /R t

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt One of the reconnaissance methods is the relationship between the SP curve and

Quick-Look

Methods:

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt This technique works because the SP log is based on differences in salinity

Rxo/Rt

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt This technique works because the SP log is based on differences in salinity

This technique works because the SP log is based on differences in salinity which in turn are related to

differences in

resistivity:

Sp  K * log

R

mf

R

w

  * log

K

R

xo

R t
R
t

Quick-Look

Methods:

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt When the rock contains only water, Rxo/Rt will differ from the SP only

Rxo/Rt

When the rock contains

only water, Rxo/Rt will differ from the SP only by a constant. If

Quick-Look Methods: Rxo/Rt When the rock contains only water, Rxo/Rt will differ from the SP only

petroleum is present. Rt increases so the two curves deflect

away from each

other.

Sp  K * log

R

mf

R

w

  * log

K

R

xo

R t
R
t

Quick-Look

Methods:

Apparent Water
Apparent Water

Rwa

Resistivity (Rwa) compares the deep resistivity of various zones in the well bore. The lowest Rwa is assumed to be

Quick-Look Methods: Apparent Water Rwa Resistivity (Rwa) compares the deep resistivity of various zones in the

water, so high Rwa

must contain petroleum.

Quick-Look

Methods:

Rwa

This works because
This works because
Quick-Look Methods: Rwa This works because R  F * R o w or m R
R  F * R o w or m R *  o R  w
R
F
*
R
o
w
or
m
R
* 
o
R
w
a
and
m
R
* 
t
R
wa
a

Need info about

lithology and porosity

Quick-Look

Methods:

If the lowest Rwa
If the lowest Rwa

Rwa

reading reflects only water in the pores, then the apparent

Quick-Look Methods: If the lowest Rwa Rwa reading reflects only water in the pores, then the

water saturation (Swa) can be estimated by:

S

wa

R wa min R wa zone
R
wa min
R
wa zone

Quick-Look

Methods:

Rwa

Quick-Look Methods: Rwa the zones being compared have the same lithology and porosity. This Swa assumes
Quick-Look Methods: Rwa the zones being compared have the same lithology and porosity. This Swa assumes

the zones being compared have the same lithology and porosity.

This Swa assumes that

S

wa

R wa min R wa zone
R
wa min
R
wa zone

Quick-Look Methods:

Resistivity porosity

Quick-Look Methods: Resistivity porosity resistivity data using the Archie Equation, and assuming Sw = 1 1

resistivity data using the Archie Equation, and assuming Sw = 1

1

S

w

a

*

R

w

n

R

t

*

m

or

 

R

a

R

*

R

w

*

S

n

1

m

 

t

w

When S

w

1,

 

1

 

R

a

*

R

R

w

t

m

This method calculates a porosity from

In zones that are water filled, is high and equal to the true porosity.

Quick-Look Methods: Resistivity porosity resistivity data using the Archie Equation, and assuming Sw = 1 1

In zones that have petroleum, Rt is high and is lower than the true value.

R is plotted with porosity logs and knowledge of the lithology is assumed.

Quick-Look Methods:

Wet Resistivity (Ro)

Quick-Look Methods: Wet Resistivity (Ro) formation and fluids. Rt is the measured value. Ro is the

formation and fluids. Rt is the measured value.

Ro is the actual resistivity of the

Ro can be estimated from the formation factor (a, m & ), and Rw.

Quick-Look Methods: Wet Resistivity (Ro) formation and fluids. Rt is the measured value. Ro is the

Assuming a value for Rw and , then Ro is the estimate for the resistivity of a water saturated zone.

R

0

*

a R

w

m

Quick-Look Methods:

Wet Resistivity (Ro)

Quick-Look Methods: Wet Resistivity (Ro) When the calculated Ro is plotted with Rt, the deep measurement

When the calculated Ro is plotted with Rt, the deep measurement by the log, the two traces should

overlay if there is no petroleum. Otherwise, the two

Quick-Look Methods: Wet Resistivity (Ro) When the calculated Ro is plotted with Rt, the deep measurement

curves will diverge.

a R * w R  0 m 
a R
*
w
R 
0
m

Detailed Log Analysis

Detailed Log Analysis Once prospective hydrocarbon zones have been identified, then calculations of the desired parameters

Once prospective hydrocarbon zones have been identified,

then calculations of the

Detailed Log Analysis Once prospective hydrocarbon zones have been identified, then calculations of the desired parameters

desired parameters for economic evaluation are

made.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation Water saturation in the flushed zone and the uninvaded zone are

Water saturation in the flushed zone and the uninvaded zone are calculated using the

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation Water saturation in the flushed zone and the uninvaded zone are

Archie Equation.

S

w

1

a

*

R

w

R

t

*

m

n

and

S

x o

1

a

*

R

mf

R

x o

*

m

n

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation Instead of calculating Sw and Sxo separately, it is useful to

Instead of calculating Sw and Sxo separately, it is useful to calculate their ratio, because

the lithology factors are

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation Instead of calculating Sw and Sxo separately, it is useful to
eliminated. R n x o  S  R w t     
eliminated.
R
n
x o
S
R
w
t
R
S
mf
x o
R
w

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

Sw/Sxo is the Moveable Hydrocarbon Index. If
Sw/Sxo is the Moveable
Hydrocarbon Index. If

Sw/Sxo = 1, no hydrocarbons were moved.

If it is less than 0.7 for ss,

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation Sw/Sxo is the Moveable Hydrocarbon Index. If Sw/Sxo = 1, no

or less then 0.6 for carbs, then petroleum will move.

S

w

S

x o

1

2

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation 1 *  n  a R w S    w 
Water Saturation
1
*
n
 a R
w
S  
w
m
R * 
t
Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation 1 *  n  a R w S  
Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation 1 *  n  a R w S  

Instead of calculating Sw using the Archie equation where lithology parameters must be known, water saturation can also be estimated using the

ratio method without knowing

the lithology parameters.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

1 2  R  xo   S R w t    R
1
2
 R
xo
S
R
w
t
R
S
mf
xo
R
w
Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation 1 2  R  xo   S R w

The saturation ratio can be determined using only resistivity data (above). If petroleum is present, then:

1 S  S   5 x o w
1
S  S
 5
x o
w

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

1 2  R  xo   S R S  S  5 1
1
2
 R
xo
S
R
S  S
 5 1
w
t
x o
w
R
S
mf
xo
R
w
Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation 1 2  R  xo   S R S

Substituting Sxo gives Swr (water saturation ratio method).

S

wr

5

8

Detailed Log Analysis:

Water Saturation

on Sw computed using the
on Sw computed using the

Swr can be used as a check

Detailed Log Analysis: Water Saturation on Sw computed using the Swr can be used as a

Archie equation

5 8 S  wr
5
8
S
wr

1

a R

*

S  

w

w

R *

t

m

n

Detailed Log Analysis:

Irreducible Water Saturation

particle surfaces, and water that will not move
particle surfaces, and water that will not move

because of capillary pressure. This is called

Detailed Log Analysis: Irreducible Water Saturation particle surfaces, and water that will not move because of

irreducible water saturation, S wirr .

Water saturation, Sw, includes water that is bound to

If Sw = Swirr, then no water will be produced, which

is important to know in making an economic evaluation of the well.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: Bulk Volume Water Bulk water volume (BVW) = S *  . Table

Bulk Volume Water

Bulk water volume (BVW) = S w * . Table 7.1 shows estimates

Detailed Log Analysis: Bulk Volume Water Bulk water volume (BVW) = S *  . Table

of BWV at irreducible

water saturations, so calculation of BVW can show whether the reservoir will produce water along with petroleum

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: reservoir is at Swirr. (The ordinate should be Sw, Bulk Volume Water Buckles

reservoir is at Swirr. (The ordinate should be Sw,

Bulk Volume Water

Buckles plots are a way of determining whether the

not Swirr).

Detailed Log Analysis: reservoir is at Swirr. (The ordinate should be Sw, Bulk Volume Water Buckles

Detailed Log Analysis:

curves of BVW if the reservoir is at Swirr (left).
curves of BVW if the reservoir is at Swirr (left).

Bulk Volume Water

Plots of against Sw will follow the hyperbolic

Otherwise, both petroleum & water production are likely.

Detailed Log Analysis: curves of BVW if the reservoir is at Swirr (left). Bulk Volume Water

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: Assignment On your spreadsheet from the previous resistivity assignment, add columns to calculate

Assignment

On your spreadsheet from the previous resistivity assignment, add columns to calculate water saturation using the ratio method (Swr), Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI), and Bulk Volume Water

(BVW).

Detailed Log Analysis: Assignment On your spreadsheet from the previous resistivity assignment, add columns to calculate

Make a Buckles plot of Sw and to determine whether the zones are at Swirr.

For each of the zones you have analyzed, describe

and explain the potential to recover hydrocarbons economically.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Saturation Crossplots

Detailed Log Analysis: Saturation Crossplots With the advent of computers, graphical solutions to the Archie equation

With the advent of computers, graphical solutions to

the Archie equation aren’t so necessary any more.

However, there are two that are sometimes used to get a visual picture of the productive zone

saturation.

Detailed Log Analysis: Saturation Crossplots With the advent of computers, graphical solutions to the Archie equation

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot

Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot The logarithmic form of the Archie equation can be written in

The logarithmic form of the Archie equation can be written in a couple of ways:

  a * R n w   S  w  m  
a
*
R
n
w
S
w
m
* R
t
log
R
log
a
*
R
m
log
 
n
log
S
t
w
w
and if S
,
1,
w
log
R
log
a
*
R
m
log
t
w
or
1
1
m
log
 
log
a
*
R
log R
w
t
m
Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot The logarithmic form of the Archie equation can be written in

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot

Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot The form below is the one traditionally used for the Pickett

The form below is the one traditionally used for the Pickett crossplot. (Note equation 7.26 in text and the description in Fig. 7.4 is wrong).

1 1 log   log a * R   m  log R w
1
1
log
 
log a * R
m
log R
w
t
m
Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot The form below is the one traditionally used for the Pickett

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R   m  log
Pickett Crossplot
1
1
log
 
log a * R
m
log R
w
t
m
Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R  

When is plotted

with R t on log-log graph paper, the slope of the line is

-1/m and the intercept, when R t =1, is (a*R w ) 1/m .

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R   m  log
Pickett Crossplot
1
1
log
 
log a * R
m
log R
w
t
m
Note that this plot
requires Sw =1.0.
Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R  

If enough points can be plotted, a value of m can be determined.

“a” can be

calculated if Rw is known (or vice versa).

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R   m  log
Pickett Crossplot
1
1
log
 
log a * R
m
log R
w
t
m
Detailed Log Analysis: Pickett Crossplot 1 1 log   log a * R  

This plot also

requires that the

lithology (“a”) and

Rw be the same

in all zones

plotted.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Pickett Crossplot 1 log log a * R   1   m  log
Pickett Crossplot
1
log
log a * R
1
 
m
log R
w
t
m
Lines for Sw < 1 can be
drawn parallel to the Sw=1

line using the factors in table 7.2. Find Rt for Sw=1 at any arbitrary , and multiply that Rt by 1.56 to

get the Rt at Sw=0.8 for that . Draw the line parallel to Sw=1.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Hingle Crossplot

Hingle crossplots are
Hingle crossplots are

strange and based on this

form of the Archie

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot Hingle crossplots are strange and based on this form of the

equation:

a R t      
a
R
t
  
  
R w n 1    S  m w
R
w
n
1
   S
m
w
m 1
m
1

 

Detailed Log Analysis:

Hingle Crossplot

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot  , or any proxy such as the density or sonic

, or any proxy such as the density or sonic logs is plotted on a linear scale

at the bottom. The

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot  , or any proxy such as the density or sonic

ordinate is 1/R t (or conductivity) and has to

be scaled for particular

values of “a” and “m”.

a R       t
a
R
  
  
t
1 n m    S  w R w
1
n
m
   S
w
R
w
1 m
1
m

 

Detailed Log Analysis:

Hingle Crossplot

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot The scaling of the ordinate must be designed so that values

The scaling of the ordinate must be designed so that values of Rt and plot as a straight line for constant Sw.

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot The scaling of the ordinate must be designed so that values
a R       t
a
R
  
  
t
1 n m    S  w R w
1
n
m
   S
w
R
w
1 m
1
m

 

Detailed Log Analysis:

Hingle Crossplot

While “a” and “m” must be assumed to design a
While “a” and “m” must
be assumed to design a

Hingle plot to get a straight line, the data

Detailed Log Analysis: Hingle Crossplot While “a” and “m” must be assumed to design a Hingle

plotted on the Sw=1 line

can be used to calculate Rw. Sw<1 can also be

estimated once the Sw=1

line is established.

a R       t
a
R
  
  
t
1 n m    S  w R w
1
n
m
   S
w
R
w
1 m
1
m

 

Detailed Log Analysis:

Permeability

resistivity, Sw and hydrocarbon density data.
resistivity, Sw and hydrocarbon density data.

Permeability can be estimated from porosity,

However, Sw must equal Swirr, the irreducible water saturation.

Bulk Volume Water (BVW) must be calculated and

Detailed Log Analysis: Permeability resistivity, Sw and hydrocarbon density data. Permeability can be estimated from porosity,

plotted in advance to made sure the zone of interest is at Swirr.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: Permeability There are two simple formulas for medium gravity oil and dry gas

Permeability

There are two simple formulas for medium gravity oil

and dry gas (i.e. hydrocarbon density is assumed.

For medium gravity oil:

 

 

3

2

 

K

250

S

wirr

 

3

2

K

79

S

wirr

Detailed Log Analysis: Permeability There are two simple formulas for medium gravity oil and dry gas

For dry gas:

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: 2 Permeability 3    K   250   
2 Permeability 3    K   250     S 
2
Permeability
3
 
K
 250
S
wirr
The equations
Detailed Log Analysis: 2 Permeability 3    K   250   

can be solved graphically.

Each

hydrocarbon

density

requires a

separate graph.

Detailed Log Analysis:

for hydrocarbon density is:
for hydrocarbon density is:

Permeability

A more complicated formula that includes variables

C

23

465

h

188

2

h

  • 1

  • 3.75    

log
2

  R w   R t irr  
R
w
R
t irr

2.2

2

W

Detailed Log Analysis: for hydrocarbon density is: Permeability A more complicated formula that includes variables C

K

C  

2 W

W

  • 4

w R
w
R

R

t irr

2

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: hydrocarbon density. If cores are available, permeability can be measured in the lab.

hydrocarbon density. If cores are available, permeability can be measured in the lab.

Permeability

The most reliable permeability comes from well

testing and direct measurements of discharge and

Detailed Log Analysis: hydrocarbon density. If cores are available, permeability can be measured in the lab.

Detailed Log Analysis:

and porosity measurements and all of the
and porosity measurements and all of the

Shale/Clay Analysis

Shale and clay in in rock directly affects resistivity

parameters derived from them, especially Sw. Phyllosilicates do not all affect resistivity the same

way. It is the cation exchange capacity of the

Detailed Log Analysis: and porosity measurements and all of the Shale/Clay Analysis Shale and clay in

layer silicate that is critical; Kaolinite, chlorite muscovite and biotite with low capacities do not

affect the resistivities as much as the smectites.

Logging tools can not make those distinctions so clay content in rocks is a significant problem.

Detailed Log Analysis:

phyllosilicate component is important, so the
phyllosilicate component is important, so the

Shale/Clay Analysis

Some knowledge of the resistivity of the

usual assumption is that Rt of nearby shale zones is the same as Rsh in the reservoir. This is often a

bad assumption leading to erroneous Sw.

Detailed Log Analysis: phyllosilicate component is important, so the Shale/Clay Analysis Some knowledge of the resistivity

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: Shale/Clay Analysis The usual procedure is: 1. Calculate a volume of shale (Vsh)

Shale/Clay Analysis

The usual procedure is:

1. Calculate a volume of shale (Vsh) using the

gamma ray log the SP log, or a lithology crossplot.

  • 2. Use the Vsh to correct porosities calculated by the

Detailed Log Analysis: Shale/Clay Analysis The usual procedure is: 1. Calculate a volume of shale (Vsh)

sonic, density and/or neutron logs.

  • 3. Measure a bound water resistivity (Rwb) from zones with 100% shale and a free water resistivity Rt from a shale free zone.

Detailed Log Analysis:

4.

5.

Calculate a water-bound saturation Swb for the 100% shale zone.
Calculate a water-bound saturation Swb for the
100% shale zone.

Shale/Clay Analysis

Find the apparent resistivity Rwa of the reservoir using the weighted average of Rt and Rwb

6.

knowing Vsh.

Detailed Log Analysis: 4. 5. Calculate a water-bound saturation Swb for the 100% shale zone. Shale/Clay

Calculate a total, shale corrected, water saturation (Swt) for the reservoir.

Detailed Log Analysis:

Detailed Log Analysis: Shale/Clay Analysis 7. Then the effective water saturation for the reservoir (Swe) is

Shale/Clay Analysis

7. Then the effective water saturation for the reservoir (Swe) is

S  S wt wb S  we 1  S wb
S
S
wt
wb
S
we
1  S
wb
Detailed Log Analysis: Shale/Clay Analysis 7. Then the effective water saturation for the reservoir (Swe) is