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Basics of IT Unit 3 Computer Fundamentals

Vineeth K

Characteristics of computer
Speed Storage Accuracy & reliability Automatic Diligence/endurance Scientific approach Versatility

Faster than human Measured in milli/micro/nano/pico seconds Instructions per second(KIPS, MIPS) kilo and million

Primary/ secondary storage Measured in terms of nibble, byte, kilobyte, megabyte , gigabyte and terabyte(1024)

Accurate, Reliable, Automatic, Diligent.

Depends on HUMAN input 100% accurate based on the instructions No prompting required No fatigue in spite of voluminous work Scientific approach- no room for emotions Versatile- one computer .. Millions of uses

Criteria for using computers

To make available information promptly Highly accurate and reliable information Preparing reports Reducing paper work Identify problem areas

History of computers
ABACUS Calculating machines- China- 450 BC 1642 AD Adding machines - Blaise Pascal French scientist 1692 AD Multiplying machine Gottfried Leibnitiz Germany 1833 Analytical engine Charles Babbage England- Auto computation of mathematical table 1942 Mark I Pennsylvania Univ. U S- electro mechanical calculator 1944 ENIAC- Harvard univ. U S first electronic calculator- 300 multiplications per sec 1947 EDSAC electronic delayed storage and calculation- first electronic computer- stored pgm concept- binary numbers- storage in digital form 1951- UNIVAC I first commercial computer- universal accounting company- UNIVersal Automatic Computer.

Generations of computers

Basis of classification of computers

Type of data they are capable of manipulating Mixture of data handling types Scientific and commercial computers Special purpose / general purpose Price, size, capabilities

Classification of computers
Digital Computer Analog Computer Hybrid Computer

Specific Purpose Computer

General Purpose Computer Mainframes Mini Computer Micro Computer Super Computer

Classification of computers
Analog numbers rep. by physical quantity true values fed in accuracy related to precision of measurement Digital data represented as numbers or separate units- approximation and number of samples determine accuracy Hybrid- speed of analog and accuracy of digital computers

Applications of computers
Science and technology
Engineering Space technology Medical and medicine applications Defense Telecommunication and networking applications Banking Payroll system Industrial admin applns Business and admin applns Educational applns
Computer assisted learning(CAL) Co-aided instruction(CAI)

Commercial applications

Basic Components of a PC

Main Memory

Supervisory Control Unit (CU)


Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

Backing Storage/ Secondary Storage