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PLASTIC BOTTLES A plastic bottle is a container constructed of plastic, with a neck that is narrower than its body and

an opening at the top. The mouth of the bottle is normally sealed with a plastic bottle cap. Plastic bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink.

RAWMATERIALS USED 1) High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) 2) Poly Propylene (PP) 1) High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) Plastic bottles manufactured from HDPE will be: Less durable More opaque Best used for (packing of): Food products Tablets Colours are added to HDPE to increase non-transparency and strength of the plastic products. 2) Poly Propylene (PP) Plastic bottles manufactured from PP will be: Transparent Clear Durable Flexible Best for carrying liquid products

Polymerization

MANUFACTURING OF PLASTIC BOTTLES

1) BLOW MOULDING MACHINE:


A Blow Moulding Machine is usually used to manufacture the body of a plastic bottle or the bottom part of the plastic bottle. It has a mould with a pre-carved shape within the cavity so as to get the desired shape of the bottle.

The machine also blows air into the plastic material so as to expand the interior of the bottle or in other words to obtain interior space.

The opening where the raw materials are introduced is called the Hopper. From there the materials pass through a barrel called the Heater. As the name itself suggests, here the raw materials are heated, but at different stages and at different temperatures, gradually from lower temperatures to higher temperatures. The screws are contained in the heater. They help in the easy movement of the raw materials. Then the liquid (or the semi liquid) flows into the mould, where the plastic is moulded to the desired shape . After it is moulded, air is blown into the plastic. Now the plastic bottle is ready. In this way the base of the bottle is ready.

Extrusion Blow Moulding


Extrusion blow moulding can be used to process many different polymers including polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and more. The process begins with the conventional downward extrusion of a tube. When the tube reaches the desired length the mould is closed catching and holding the neck end open and pinching the bottom end closed.

Then a blow-pin is inserted into the neck end of the hot tube to form the threaded opening and inflate the tube inside the mold cavity.
When the mould is completely cooled it is opened to eject the bottle and the excess plastic is trimmed from the neck and bottom areas.

Stretch Blow Moulding


The main applications of stretch blow moulding includes jars, bottles, and similar containers because it produces items of excellent visual and dimensional quality compared to extrusion blow moulding. The process first requires the plastic to be injection moulded into a 'preform' with the finished necks (threads) of the bottles on one end.

The preform is then heated above its glass transition temperature and blown, using high pressure air, into bottles using metal blow molds. At the same time the preform is stretched with a core rod to fill inside of the mould.

PREFORM

2) INJECTION MACHINE :
Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold.

The plastic is melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools and solidifies into the final part.
The Injection machine works some what similar to the blow mould machine. Two main differences to be noted among the two are: Air is not blown to expand the plastic. Instead of the movement of the screws in the heater, there is a horizontal push of the plastic in it. Usually the bottle caps are manufactured in this process (machine).

Machine for injection moulding

PROGRAMMING LOGIC CONTROL (PLC) A plastic industry or any industry for that matter can not run with a single machine.

Even a small scale concern with a single manufacturing outlet will have at least 2 to 5 machines for manufacturing its products.
Hence, it is necessary to co-ordinate the functioning of the machines and to program them for the process of manufacturing or production. This is bought about by the PROGRAM LOGIC CONTROL (or PLC).

Anupama Aparna Kripna Nijina Nimisha Ebin Sidharth