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TYPES OF FABRICS

Balanced plain weave fabric

Cheesecloth a lightweight, sheer, plain-woven fabric with a very soft texture. It


may be natural colored, bleached, or dyed. It usually has a very low count.

Gauze

a sheer, lightweight, low-count, plain- or leno-weave balanced fabric made up spun yarns. It is often cotton, rayon, or a blend of these fibers. Indian gauze has a crinkled look and is available in a variety of fabric weight. of approximately the same size and twist used in warp and filling. The fabric is balanced.

Chiffon a sheer, very lightweight, plain-woven fabric with fine crepe twist yarns

Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth. Cambric was first used in Cambrai, France,
which gave the fabric its name, as early as 1595. It is a closely woven, firm fabric with a slight glossy surface produced by calendering. Modern cambric is made from Egyptian or American cotton and sometime flax.

a plain-weave fabric usually of cotton, rayon, or a blend of these with polyester. Usually chambray has white yarns in the filling direction and yarndyed yarns in the warp direction. It can also be made in striped patterns.

Chambray

Canvas

a heavy, firm; strong fabric often made of cotton or acrylic and used for slipcovers, and covers for boats. It is produced in many grades and qualities. It is made in plain or basket weave.

and qualities. It may be balanced or unbalanced. It may be made of combed or carded yarns. If two colors of yarn are used, the fabric is called a check or checked gingham. If three or more colors are used, the fabric is referred to as plaid gingham.
Muslin a firm, medium- to heavyweight, plain weave cotton fabric made in a

Gingham a yarn-dyed, plain weave fabric that is available in a variety of weights

variety of qualities. Muslin made with low-grade cotton fiber.

Organdy a transparent, crisp, lightweight; plain-weave fabric made of cotton-

spun yarns. The fabric has been parchmentized to create the crisp, wiry hand.
Flannel a light- to heavyweight, plain- or twill-weave fabric with a napped

surface.

Cheviot a rough surfaced fabric of wool with a heavy nap. Used for coating.

Loosely woven tweed fabric with a shaggy texture.

Burlap a coarse, heavy, loosely woven plain-weave fabric often made of single

irregular yarns of jute. It is used in its natural color for carpet backing, bagging, and furniture webbing. It is also dyed and printed for home-furnishing uses.

Voile -

A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. It is similar in appearance to organdy and organza. When it is made from wool, it is called "Voile de laine". Voile is sheer and very light-weight. It is usually made with combed yarns.. It has a hard finish and a crisp, sometimes wiry, hand.
Organza - A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain-weave fabric, with a

medium to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester. The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women. It has a very wiry feel. It crushes or musses fairly easily, but it is easily pressed. Organza is a dressy type of fabric that sometimes has a silvery sheen.
Lawn - A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed linen or

cotton yarns in a plain weave. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish. The name derived from Laon, a city in France, where linen lawn was manufactured extensively. It is light weight, sheer, soft, and washable. It is crispier than voile but not as crisp as organdy. When made with fine high count yarns, it has a silky feel. Comes in white or may be dyed or printed. When made with combed yarns with a soft feel and slight luster, it is called nainsook.

Batiste

an opaque, lightweight, spun yarn plain-weave fabric with a smooth surface. When made of cotton or cotton/polyester, the yarns are usually combed. It can be made of all wool, silk, or rayon.
Broadcloth a close plain-weave fabric made of cotton, rayon, or a blend of

either cotton or rayon with polyester. It has a fine rib in the filling direction caused by slightly larger filling yarns, filling yarns with a lower twist, or a higher warp-yarn count. High-quality broadcloth is made with plied warp and filling yarns. The fabric may be mercerized. It has a soft, firm hand. The term broadcloth is also used to refer to a plain- or twill-weave lustrous wool or woo-blend fabric that is highly napped and then pressed flat.
Buckram a heavy, very still, spun-yarn fabric converted from cheesecloth gray

goods with adhesives and fillers. It is used as an interlining to stiffen pinch-pleated, window-treatment fabrics.
China

filament yarns and used for apparel.

silk a soft, lightweight, opaque, plain-weave fabric made from fine-

Crash a medium- to heavyweight; plain-weave fabric made from slub or

irregular yarns to create an irregular surface.

Poplin

a medium- to heavyweight, unbalanced, plain weave, and spunyarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. The filling yarns are coarser than the warp yarns. Poplin has a more pronounced rib than broadcloth. silk, now often of manmade filament fibers. Often weighted to produce its characteristic crispness. Solid colors, but sometimes of one color warp and another color filling to give changeable color effect, sometimes called "shot taffeta." May also be striped for plaid, occasionally printed. Sometimes has a moir pattern. Used for dresses, suits, coats, and lingerie.

Taffeta A smooth, closely woven fabric in a plain weave. Originally of

Pongee is a medium-weight, balanced, plain weave fabric with a fine regular warp and an irregular filling. It was originally a tussah or wild-silk fabric, but now pongee is used to describe a fabric that has the general appearance of fine warp yarns and irregular filling yarns.

Tweed A term broadly applied to the sturdier types of fabrics made of the coarser grades of wool. Tweed fabrics originally derived their interest from the color effects obtained by mixing stock-dyed wools. The most popular weaves for tweeds are the plain, the twill, and variations of the latter. Now also made of other fibers.

Basket weave variation


Duck

a strong, heavy, plain or basket weave fabric. Duck comes in a variety of weights and qualities. It is similar to canvas, usually made from cotton.
Hopsacking

a coarse, loosely woven suiting-or bottom-weight; basket-weave fabric often made of low grade cotton.
Monk's

(Druid's) Cloth Basket weave, a variation of the plain weaves. Made with heavy rough yarns. Can be a 1 x 1, 2 x 2, 4 x 4, or 8 x 8 thread; the best known is the 4 x 4. These four threads in warp and filling are placed flat together and woven over and under in a plain weave; the resulting appearance is that of a basket. Used for drapery and upholstery.
Oxford

A plain basket weave of medium or heavy weight. Made with a variety of cotton, rayon, or polyester/cotton yarns. The majority of oxfords are of combed yarns, with heavier filling than warp yarns. Cheaper grades are mixed carded and combed yarns, and sometimes all carded yarns. Two warp yarns, placed flat next to each other, are woven over and under one heavier filling thread. Usually mercerized. A number of variations of this weave are on the market. For shirting's, dresses, and similar purposes

Twill weave fabrics

Chino a steep-twill fabric with a slight sheen, often made in a bottom-weight fabric of cotton or cotton/polyester. Often it is made of combed two-ply yarns in both warp and filling and vat-dyed in khaki.

Denim a cotton or cotton/polyester blend, twill-weave, and yarn dyed fabric. Usually the warp is colored and the filling is white. It is usually left-hand twill that is commonly available with a blue warp and white filling for use in apparel. It is available in a variety of weights. Gabardine (gaberdine) a tightly woven, medium- to heavyweight, steepor regular-angle, twill-weave fabric with a pronounced wale. The fabric can be wool, a wool-blend, or synthetic-fiber content designed to look like wool. Gabardine can also be 100 percent-texturized polyester or a cotton/polyester blend. Serge a general term used to refer to twill-weave fabrics with a flat, righthand wale. The interlacing pattern is 2/2. The fabric is often wool or woollike.

fo r n Drill e Drill is a strong, medium- to heavyweight, warp-faced, twill-weave fabric. It is c usually a 2/1 left-handed twill and piece dyed. k w e ar Surah Surah was originally made of silk, but , now also made of manmade filament is sweave that may come in plaid or a fibers. It is a soft, supple fabric of twill c printed pattern. It's used for neckwear, scarves, blouses, and dresses. ar v e s, bl o u s e s, a n d dr

Sateen A cotton fabric usually woven so that the surface is smooth and the finish lustrous, resembling satin. Can be either a strong, warp-face sateen or softer filling-face sateen. Often, though not always, filling sateens have a softer finish than warp satins. Satin Originally silk, now also of filament manmade fibers with a highly lustrous surface and usually a dull back. Made in different weights according to its uses, which vary from lingerie and dress goods to drapery and upholstery fabrics. May be made with a cotton back. Sometimes double-faced for use as ribbon. Crepe-back Satin or Satin Crepe Satin weave of silk or manmade fiber with a crepe-twist filling. As the fabric is reversible, interesting effects can be obtained by contrasting the surfaces. Used for dresses, blouses, and linings. Crepe Has a pebbly or crinkled surface produced by use of special crepe yarns. Can be crepe, granite, or plain weave. Generally, mixed-twist crepe yarns used in both warp and filling; occasionally crepe yarns used only in the warp or the filling. Crepe effects can also be obtained by chemical treatment and embossing.

Damask a reversible, flat, jacquard-woven fabric with a stain weaves in both the pattern and the plain weave ground. It can be one color or two. In two-color damasks, the color reverses on the opposite side. It is used in apparel and home furnishings. Double cloth a fabric made by weaving two fabrics with five sets of yarns: two sets of warp, two sets of filling, and one set that connects the two fabrics. Brocade a jacquard-woven fabric with a pattern that is created with different colors or with patterns in twill or satin weaves on a ground of plain, twill, or satin weave. It is available in a variety of fiber contents and qualities. Velour a general term used to describe pile fabrics. Velours tend to have dense, long, or deep pile. Velours can be woven or knitted. Velvet Compact short warp pile of silk or manmade fiber and usually a cotton or, perhaps, rayon back. Similar to plush but shorter pile and softer. Velveteen a filling-pile fabric made with long floats that are cut in the finishing process. The ground fabric can have a plain or twill weave. The pile in velveteen is short. Velveteen is usually a spun yarn fabric.

seersucker - A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Tencel - A trademark for a high performance fiber used to make soft, beautifully draping rayon fabrics. Tencel is made from wood pulp. Terry - A woven fabric, usually cotton, with loop pile on one or both sides lawn - A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed, linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish. Heather - A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (For example, black and white may be blended together to create a gray heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns

Types of Silk Fabric :


There are innumerable varieties of silk moths, but only four main types of commercially valuable natural silk: Mulberry silk Tasar silk : This is a copperish colored silk. It is coarse and is used mainly for furnishings. It is produced by the silkworm Antheraea mylitta . Muga silk : This is a golden yellow colored silk that is produced in Assam. It is obtained from the semidomesticated silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Eri silk : This is got from the domesticated silkworm, Philosamia ricini that feeds mainly on castor leaves.

Organza : This is a very thin silk cloth that is made of highly twisted yarn. Crepe : This silk textile is woven from s' and z' twisted yarn. Satin : An extremely elegant type of mulberry silk fabric. Banarasi satin sarees are very popular. Matka silk : A thick kind of silk fabric, used for furnishing. By varying the amount of yarn used, the texture and thickness may be modified. It is produced in Bhagalpur in India. Murshidabad silk : Produced in the Murshidabad district of West Bengal, this type of silk cloth is used to make sarees and scarves. It is available in varying qualities.

Dupion : This type of Indian silk fabric, is a specialty of the handlooms in Bangalore, India. It is available in a number of shades; and used for both garments as well as soft furnishings. Charka silk : This is a thick variety of silk from India that is used to make zari sarees. It is woven on a handloom. Chiffon : A very soft and light variety of silk fabric, it is made of highly twisted yarn that is woven on a power loom. It is a very thin, but strong fabric. Tabby silk : This variety is produced in Kashmir and is used to make sarees and scarves.

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