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Motivation

Outline

Motivation
Theories
Job Analysis

Motivation - Definition - Theories of people about Motivation - Motivational Process

Theories - Maslows Need Hierarchy - Theory X and Theory Y - McClellans need theory - ERG Theory - Herzbergs 2-factor theory - Adams Theory of Inequity - Vrooms expectancy theory - Lockes goal setting theory

Job Analysis -Job Satisfaction -Performance Appraisal System -Reward System

Maslow
Higher order needs Self-actualization Esteem

McGreg or

Aldelfer

McClelland

Theory Y

Growth

Need for achievement Need for power

Relatedness Self interpersonal Need for affiliation

Belongingness (social and love)


Lower order needs Safety and Security Theory X existence

Interpersonal physical Physiological

Motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. It is one of the more complex topics in organization behavior. Motivation comes from the Latin root word movere, which means to move.

Motivation theories
Internal theory gives primary consideration within the individual that give rise to motivation and behavior. Process theory emphasize the nature of interaction between the individual and the environment. External theory

Theories of people about motivation


Maslows Hierarchy of needs It assumes that individuals should satisfy first the physiological needs, which is at the bottom of the hierarchy before proceeding to the next level.
Alderfers ERG theories Refer to Existence, Relatedness, and Growth to explain the levels of needs.

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theories Implies that organization should create interesting jobs in order to motivate people. An application of Herzbergs Theories is job enrichment. There is several method of job enrichment. Job enrichment- is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities. McClellands learned Needs Theory Emphasize the primary learned needs: need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power.

Vrooms Expectancy Theory Defines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity. Adams Equity Theory Asserts that people compare the rewards they get against co-workers in similar work situation.

Edwin Locke Believe that the primary determinations of behavior are the individuals goals and objective. People engage in give and take relationship. This further explains in the exchange theory. Douglas McGregors theory X and Y employ the authoritarian and participative management styles as motivational techniques for people at work.

Motivation Process

Maslows need Hierarchy


Psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed a theory of motivation emphasizing psychological and interpersonal needs in addition to physical needs and economic necessity, was based on a need hierarchy later applied through theory X and theory Y two assumptions about people at work. His need hierarchy was reformulated in an ERG theory of motivation using a revised classification scheme for basic human needs.

Need Hierarchy
The theory that behaviour is determined by a progression of physical, social and psychological needs, include lower-order and higher order needs.

Human Needs, Theory X & Theory Y


Theory Y is a set of assumption of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs.

Self actualization needs Esteem needs

Social needs

Theory X is a set of assumptions of how to manage individual who are motivated by lower-order needs.

Safety and Security needs

Psycological needs

Max weber

Internal needs

-an early German organizational scholar, argued that the meaning of work lay not in the work itself but it is deeper potential for contributing to a persons ultimate salvation. -the protestant ethic was the fuel for human industriousness. The protestant ethic said People should work hard because those who prospered at work were more likely to find a place in heaven.

Sigmund Freud
-a persons organizational life was founded on the compulsion to work and the power of love. He saw much of human motivation as unconscious by nature. -Psychoanalysis was Freuds method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understands a persons motives and needs. -his psychodynamic theory offers explanations for irrational and self-destructive behaviour such as suicide or workplace violence.

External incentives
Hawthorne studies confirmed the positive effects as pay incentives on productivity and also found that social and interpersonal motives were important. Adam Smith argued that a persons self-interest was Gods providence, not the governments. Executives have focused on enlightened self-interest. Self-interest is what is in the best interest and benefit to the individual; enlightened self-interest additionally recognizes the self-interest of the other people. The invisible hand refers to the unseen forces of a free market system that shape the most efficient use of people, money and resources for productive end. Smiths basic assumption was that people are motivated by self-interest for economic gain to provide the necessities and convenience of life. Technology is an important concept because he believed that a nations wealth is determined primarily by the productivity of its labour force. Frederick Taylor was concerned with labour efficiency and effectiveness. His central concern was to change the relationship between management and labour from one of conflict and one of cooperation. He believed that the basis of their conflict was division of the profits. It is the lowest level of ungratified needs in the hierarchy that motivates behaviour.

McGregors Assumptions about Theory Y People


Theory X
-

People are by nature indolent. That is, they work as little as possible. People are lack of ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led People are inherently selfcentered and indifferent to organizational needs. People are by nature resistant to change People are gullible and not very bright, the ready dupes of the charlatan and the demagogue.

People are not by nature passive on resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility and the readiness to direct behaviour towards organizational goal are all present in people. Management does not put them there. It is a responsibility for management to take it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves. The essential task of management is to arrange conditions and method of operation so that people can achieve their own goal best by directing their own efforts towards organizational objective.

McClellands Learned needs Theory


McClelland suggested that a strong affiliation motivation somewhat destroys a managers objectivity, because of their need to be liked.
McClelland identified 3 learned or acquired needs, called manifest needs. These were the needs for achievement, for power, and for affliation. Some individuals have a high need for achievement. The same is true with the others.

Need for achievement


The need for achievement concerns issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties. A person with a high need for achievement seeks excellence in performance, enjoys difficult and challenging goals, and is persevering and competitive in work activities. McClelland found that people with a high need for achievement perform better than those with moderate and low need for achievement, and he has noted national differences in achievement motivation.

Need for power


The need for power is concerned with the desire to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make differences in life

Need for affliation


The need for affliation is concerned with establishing and maintaining warm, close, intimate relationships with other people. Those with a high need of affliation are motivated to express their emotions and feelings to others while expecting them to do the same in return. They find conflicts and complications in their relationships disturbing and are strongly motivated to work through any such barriers to closeness. The relationships they have with others are therefore close and personal, emphasizing friendship and companionship.

Two new ideas in motivation


Two new ideas in motivation have emerged in the past decade. One center on eustress, strenght and hope. This idea comes from the new discipline of positive organizational behavior. A second new idea centers on positive energy and full engagement.

Eustress, Strenght, and Hope


Eustress is healthy, normal stress. Aligned with eustress in the new dicipline of positive organizational scholarship are investing in strengths finding positive meaning in work, displaying courage and principled action, and drawing on positive emotions at work. This new, positive perspective on organizational life encourages optimism, hope, and health for people at work. Rather than focusing on the individuals needs, or alternatively on the rewards or punishment meted out.

ERG Theory by Clayton Alderfer

Alderfer Classified Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to only three levels, namely: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Level of needs Existence- individual needs are satisfied by food, water, air, pay, and working conditions. Relatedness- this is satisfied by interpersonal relationships. Growth- this is the equivalent of Maslows esteem and selfactualization needs.

Maslows physiological and physical safety needs are categorized in the existence need category; Maslows interpersonal safety, love, and interpersonal esteem needs in a relatedness need category; and Maslows self-actualization and self- esteem needs in a growth need category.

ERG Theory also added the regression hypothesis which helped explain that peoples behavior when frustrated at meeting needs at the next higher level in the hierarchy.

Herzbergs 2 factor theory

Four clusters of motivators emerge with the rankings:


Ego incentives Work conditions as motivators Organizational image and administration Extrinsic awards

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Motivation factor a work condition related to satisfaction of the need for psychological growth. Hygiene factor a work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain.

Motivation factors
Job satisfaction is produced by building motivation factors into a job. Herzberg
Motivation factors are identified as responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, and the work itself. When these factors are present, they lead to superior performance and effort on the part of job incumbents.

Hygiene factors

Job dissatisfaction occurs when the hygiene factors are either not present or nor sufficient. Hygiene factors were company policy and administration; technical supervision; salary; interpersonal relations with ones supervisor; working conditions and status. They do not directly affect a persons motivation to work but influence the extent of the persons discontent.

Adams Equity Theory


Adams Equity Theory Performance= Rewards Performance is considered an employees inputs while Rewards are the outputs given after work has been done. Examples of inputs are: effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability. Examples of outputs are: pay, salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension agreements, bonus and commission.

Inequity in the social exchange is process is an important motivator. It suggests that people become motivated when they are in situations of inequity or unfairness. Inequity occurs when a person receives more or less, than the person believes is deserved based on effort and/or contribution. Inequity leads to the experience of tension, and tension motivates a person to act in a manner to resolve the inequity.

Resolution of Inequity

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Alter the persons outcomes. Alter the persons inputs. Alter the comparison others outcomes Alter the comparison others inputs Change who is used as a comparison other Rationalize the inequity Leave the organizational situation

Lockes Goal Setting Theory


Asserts that primary determinants of behavior are the individuals goals and objectives. The important attributes are: a) Goal Specificity Degree of goal an individual wants to achieve. b) Goal Difficulty Amount of effort required to achieve the goal. c) Goal Intensity process of determining how to achieve the goal. d) Goal commitment amount of effort used to achieve. Lockes Theory emphasizes the importance if goal setting that can lead to higher performance. However, he did not indicate whether individual differences could affect them in setting their goals.

Exchange Theory & Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation.


Exchange Theory People engage in give and take relationships e.g. work is rewarded with pay The Psychological Contract is an unwritten agreement between the individual and the organization that specifies the expectations of the company and employee e. g. pay from the company to the employee, and performance from the employee to the company. Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Focuses on personal perceptions of the performance process. Founded on the basic notions that people desire certain outcomes of behavior and performance, which may be thought of as rewards or consequences of behavior; that they believe there are relationships between the efforts they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes they receive. Its a cognitive process theory of motivation.

The key constructs of it are: Valence of an outcome importance that one places on a particular reward. Expectancy belief that effort leads to performance e.g. If I try harder, I can do better Instrumentality belief that performance is related to rewards e.g. If I perform better, I will get more pay Expectancy and Instrumentality concern a persons beliefs about how effort, performance and rewards are related However, it can vary by person and by activity. For example, one person firmly believes that better effort has direct, positive effect on performance and less effort results in reduced performance; another person might believe that regardless of the amount of additional effort, no improvement in performance is possible.

Performance-reward link may also vary. One person may believe improvement in performance means greater reward, whereas another person might think it doesnt affect rewards. Expectancy Theory has been used by managers and companies to design motivation programs such as performance planning and evaluation systems. Valence and expectancy are particularly important in establishing priorities for people pursuing multiple goals. Valence may also vary e.g. a person may prefer salary than benefits, another may prefer the reverse.

Motivational Problems
There are three problems within the Expectancy Theory framework: Disbelief in relationship between effort and performance Disbelief in relationship between performance and rewards Lack of Desire for rewards offered. Solution lies in altering this belief e.g. the textbook salesperson who does not believe more calls (effort) will result in greater sales (performance) might be shown how to distinguish departments with high-probability sales opportunities from those with low-probability sales opportunities.

Yet, if the problem is related to the value or preference of a person on certain rewards, the solution lies in influencing the value or altering the rewards themselves e.g. the textbook salesperson may not want higher commissions, given the small increment gain he would receive at his tax level. In this case, the company might establish a mechanism for sheltering commissions from being taxed or alternative mechanisms for deferred compensation. Research results on Expectancy Theory have been mixed; it has been shown to predict job satisfaction accurately, however, its complexity makes it difficult to test the full model, and the measures of instrumentality, valence, and expectancy have only weak validity.

Motivation and Moral Maturity


Expectancy Theory would predict people work to maximize their personal outcomes; this is consistent with Adam Smiths ideas of working for ones own self-interest. It may be necessary to consider an individuals moral maturity in order to better understand altruistic, fair, and equitable behavior. Moral Maturity is the measure of a persons cognitive moral development. Morally mature people act and behave based on universal ethical principles; morally immature people act and behave based on egocentric motivations.

Managerial Implications: Managers must realize that all motivation theories are not equally good or equally useful. Managers cannot assume they understand employees needs; they must understand what their employees want. Managers can increase employee motivation by training (increased perceptions of success because of increased ability), coaching (increased confidence), and task assignments (increased perceptions of success because of more experience). Managers should ensure that rewards are contingent on good performance and that valued rewards, such as time off or flexible work schedules are available. Managers should be aware that morally mature employees are more likely to be sensitive to inequities at work.

THE PROCEDURE THROUGH WHICH YOU DETERMINE THE DUTIES OF THESE POSITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE TO HIRE FOR THE JOB.

Through job analysis, manager will know the exact methods of motivation especially the types of activities the employees should do on the job, their physical and working conditions and the minimum qualifications necessary to perform the job well

JOB ANALYSIS: BASIC ELEMENTS

JOB CONTENT

JOB REQUIREMENTS

JOB CONTEXT

JOB DESIGN: CHARACTERISTICS

JOB RANGE

JOB DEPTH

JOB RELATIONSHIPS

Job Satisfaction
Four Factors:
1. Mentally Challenging Work. Multi-tasking. 3. Supportive Working Conditions. Comfortable Working Environment 4. Supportive Colleagues. Social Interaction.

2. Equitable Rewards.
Reward System.

Performance Appraisal
COMPARES EACH EMPLOYEE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH HIS/HER PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. DOING SO REQUIRE KNOWLEDGE OF THE JOBS DUTIES AND STANDARDS. MANAGERS USE JOB ANALYSIS TO LEARN WHAT THESE DUTIES AND STANDARDS ARE.

Performance appraisals provide employees and managers with opportunities to discuss areas in which employees excel and those in which employees need improvement. Performance appraisals should be conducted on a regular basis, and they need not be directly attached to promotion opportunities.